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1 



CONTENTS 



Preface ... 5 

A Few Words ... 7 

1. Gurmukhi Alphabet ... 9 

2. Writing of Punjabi ... 15 

3. Joining the Consonants ... 18 

4. More about Vowels— I ... 20 

5. More about Vowels— II ... 25 

6. More about Pronunciation ... 35 

7. Nouns ... 39 

8. Pronouns ... 41 

9. Verb ... 48 

10. More about Verbs ... 62 

11. Tenses ... 72 

12. Adjectives ... 85 

13. Adverbs ... 96 

14. Gender ... 107 

15. Postpositions ... 114 

16. Mood ... 133 

17. Degrees of Comparisons ... 137 

18. Number ... 140 

19. Other Parts of Speech-I ... 149 




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24 


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VOCaDUlary 1 


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Duuuings, Family 


1 QO 


27 


Firpcc* Hnncphnlflc frnr»Hc 
i_/icoo, n.v_»uocinjivjo vjuuvio 


... i yj 




Nature; In the City 


1 QA 


29. 


English Words in Punjabi 


... 196 




Vocabulary II 


... 198 




PREFACE 



This course in Punjabi has been prepared 
specially for the beginners. Through a simple and 
scientific method, it imparts a complete knowledge 
of the Punjabi alphabet, script, grammar and 
pronunciation. Anyone who can read and understand 
simple English should be able to acquire a good 
knowledge of Punjabi within a short period. The rest 
is practice. 

For a better utilisation of this course, the reader 
is advised to follow the instructions very carefully. 
The following points will be of great help to the 
beginner: (1) The Gurmukhi script should be 
thoroughly familiar to the student before he goes on 
to the lessons. (2) Correct pronunciation can be 
difficult for the absolute beginner, especially if he 
is a foreigner. For this it is suggested that tips may 
be taken from a Punjabi-speaking person. (3) The 
lessons have been systematically graded to enable 
the student to acquire proficiency gradually, but 
surely. (4) The exercises have been designed as 
a self-test. They should be attempted seriously and 
self-assessment made before attempting to proceed 
further. 



We have dealt with the grammar exhaustively 
and provided a large number of examples to 
facilitate complete and correct understanding of the 
language. We are sure that the book will be very 
handy for the various interests. Although care has 
been taken to make it as useful as possible, yet we 
will be open to constructive criticism and suggestions 
to make it more and more useful. 



AUTHOR 



A Few Words 



For some time now it has been our endeavour to 
bring about an emotional integration of the country 
through the spread of the knowledge of the various 
Indian languages among the people. To this end this 
book is yet another attempt on our part. 

Punjabi is the state language of Punjab, but Punjabi- 
speaking people are found in all parts of the country and 
abroad. These enterprising people mix freely among 
others and speak their own language. They create in the 
non-Punjabi-speaking people a desire to learn Punjabi 
which is one of the sweetest languages of the country. 
It is for them that we have produced this book and we 
are sure it is capable of providing not only a working 
knowledge of Punjabi, but also a deep insight into the 
Punjabi grammar. 

Punjabi has come a long way since the time of Guru 
Angad Dev who introduced the Gurumukhi alphabet. 
Before that Punjabi used to be written in Persian script. 
The Gurumukhi script is very simple and there can be 
no mistaking one letter for another. We are sure the 
book will fulfil the need for learning this language. We 
are extremely thankful to Bhai Ishwar Datt for taking 
pains in bringing out this edition. 



Publishers 



@m 

W E P D 

ct M HI HI 5 

3 € 71 3 ^ 

VI S S 3 VI 



LESSON - 1 



GURMUKHI ALPHABET 
Consonants and Vowels 



alphabet pronunciation Engliah equivalent 



r : 

§ 


• 

vowels 


oora 


u 


>K 


»» 


aira 


a 


H 


»» 


eeri 


i 


H 


consonants 


sassaa 


s 


U 


>» 


hahaa 


h 


of 


>» 


kakka 


k 


if 


»» 


khakkha 


kh 


31 


»» 


gagga 


g 


U| 


j» 


ghagha 


gh 




»» 


nanna 


n 




»» 


chachaa 


ch 


ST 


»> 


chhachha 


chh 


t? 


»> 


jajja 


j 




»» 


jhajjha 


Jh 


? 


»> 


nana 


n 


^ 


>> 


tainkaa 


t 




»i 


thatha 


th 


¥ 


»> 


dadda 


d 



alphabet pronunciation English equivalent 





»» 


dhadha 


dh 




»» 


riana 
nana 


n 
it 


3 




tatta 


v 




»» 


thatha 


th 




■• ♦ 


dadda 


d 




j •< 


dhadha 


dh 


?> 

> 


*» 


nana 


n 




i * 


pappa 


p 




» » 


phapha 


ph 






babba 


b 


§ 




bhabha 


bh 






mamma 


m 


CT 




yayya 


y 


a 




lul la 


r 


TT 
CO 




la lid 


1 






vawa 


V 






rn rid 




□ 




chacha 


sh 


H 




khhakkha 


khh 








7 






faffa 


f 






ghhaghha 


ghh 



The Punjabi alphabet is called Varnmala 
(was htht) or painti (u A 3t) There are no capital 
le ters in Punjabi. For easy familiarisation and 
. writing, the Punjabi alphabet may be divided 
into the following groups : 



T 

I M 














P 


kh 


kh 


dh 


th 


b 


V 
J 


TT 

II M 




>H 










P 


gn 


o 
a 










TTf —i 
III 














J 


7 
L. 


VI 1 


vi 


dh 


t 


nh 
pn 


TX T —- 

IV s 


s 


5 










n 


th 


] 










V R 


H 


H 










S 


sh 


m 










VI u 






31 








h 


r 


g 










vn * 










§ 




k 


bh 


t 


d 


r 


u 




VIII? 


? 












V 


n 


n 


jh 









After drawing the horizontal line the pen 



11 



should move along the bends, forming uniform 
loops or such figures as required, ending normally 
at the bottom right hand corner of the alphabet. 

The following basic letters should be practised : 
Exercise 

Q. Identify the following • 

^. 3 5. H 3. 3 8. of M r cl? £. 3 
0. « t. ^ tf. ^ lO. M H H 

Ans. 1. nana 2. lalla 3. rarra 4. kakka 
5. gagga 6. dadda 7. dhadha 8. thatha 
9. khakkha 10. pappa 11. mamma 12. sassaa. 

The Vowels 
( Swar - Matra ) 

There are three basic vowels in the 
Gurmukhi script : 

* ( v ) («); * ( ' ) (a); e ( f ) (i) 
§ is never used without a vowel sign (matra) 

Examples : 

&s : uth : get up 



12 



§2 : oat : shelter 

m can oe used as in : 

»ro : aas : hope 

ww : aajaa : come 

e can be used as in : 
fSfc : it : brick 

fei : ithe : there 

The Punjabi vowels have some important 
phonetic features s 

>x a, fe i. § u, are short vowels. They do not 
occur finally. 

m is a central or neutral vowel because it 
does not require any peculiar position of the 
mouth for pronunciation. It is inherent in a 
consonant and is not normally pronounced at the 
end of a syllable. 

>h and w are phonetically different. 

The following pairs of words have the 
inherent short and long sounds of >x. They can 
bi compared to differentiate : 

€s chall (go) chaal (gait) 

dal (group) we daal (pulses) 

13 



fe is a stressed vowel as in 'bill', 'kill', et is 
sharper and prolonged. Both are, therefore, con- 
strastive and distinct. 

fHS mill (meet) Hte meel (mile) 

fes* tilla (gold thread) 3te T teela (straw) 



Exercise 

Q. Identify the following : 

i. w p. e 3. f 8 . § 

Ans : 1. a 2. i 3. i (sign) 4. u 



14 



LESSON 2 
Writing of Punjabi 



In the Punjabi script, most letters have hor- 
izontal or vertical lines and some have curves 
and loops. The horizontal line is drawn from left 
to right for letters which require it, then a vertical 
line from top to bottom- The vertical line is 
uritten after the horizontal line. Then follow the 
curves and loops etc 

There are letters without a full line on top 
such as m, h, y etc. If we put a full line on top 
of these, their pronunciation undergoes a change. 
Such distinction shouid be carefully understood 
and practised. 

The Punjabi letters are divided into three 
parts. As already said, the first part is to draw 
the horizontal line, then the vertical line, if any, 
and the third part consists of loops or curves. 

Examples : 

1st Part 

U 5T 3T S g S 5 ? S 

ha kd ga n:i cha chha jha ta tha 



15 



da dha na ta da la pha bha 

cT ? ST 

ra va ra 

The vowel signs ( nry — matras ) 
' f 1 " " * - * 

are then tagged on : thus 

^(ka); far(gi); *t(chi); i (chhey); I (tae); 

$ (ttho); s (dhau) etc. 

The head line is given either at the start or 
at the end. It is a question of habit. 

Such letters form the first category of Punjabi 
alphabets. 

The second category of letters is of those 
which have a vertical line and a curve-stroke to 
their left high up to the level of the headline. 
Such letters start with the curve stroke. 

They are joined at the right hand-end by a 
vertical line drawn downward 

Examples 

h (ma); w (gha); M(pa); 9 (ba); xx (ya) 



16 



The third step comes when these consonants 
are provided with vowel signs, if any. 

Examples 

h ufl xi etc. 
(mu) (ghee) (po) 

t? i'ja) and & (la) form their own categories. 

In h the curve stroke is not on level with the 
headline, and it hangs on to the vertical line 
which is written first. 

Gurmukhi (la) is written in two forms s 
and h. 

The sign [ w ] over a letter means that the 
following consonant is long or doubled. 

The punctuation marks are the same as in 
English, except that full stop is written like a 
vertical line (1) 



17 



LESSON 3 



Joining the Consonants 

To construct Punjabi words, the letters 
should be combined one after the other with the 
help of a horizontal line. 

Examples 



1 


a -f * 




m 


(nar) 


(male) 


2. 


XI + s 






(dhan) 


(wealth) 


3. 


3 + 3 






(dar) 


(fear) 


4. 


<3 -\- 15 






(phal) 


(fruit) 


5. 


t? -f H 






(jal) 


(water) 


& 


H >f S 






(sach) 


(truth) 


7. 


M + 3 






(mat) 


(don't) 


8. 


ai -{- a 






(ghar) 


(house) 


9 








(hath) 


(hand) 


10. 








(sftbh) 


(all) 



Similarly, the consonants and vowels in their 



basic form are joined 








Examples 








1. jh + ar 




(ag) 


(fire) 


2. M + t? 




(aj) 


(today) 


3. fir + * 




(it) 


(brick) 


4 ft + i 




(ik) 


(one) 



1* 



< 

J' 


\S -p c 




\oi) isnener ) 




^ -p 5 


— At 


\uto) (camel) 


7 


5 1 at 
c -p °» 


~~ toe 


leicaj {.unity ) 


8. 


)»} -f 5 




(aib) (fault) 


9. 


>i? + 33 




(aurat) (woman) 






ExerciM 




Q. 


Read the following : 






WE 3 TO 


3 39 B fol 




0 


t t?S 







Ans : 1. jal (net); 2. chal iwalk); 3. hath (hand) 
4. likh (write); 5. sun (listen); 6. tir (arrow) 
7. bol Ispeak); 8.daur dim); 9. tota (parrot) 
10 vekh (look) 



19 



LESSON 4 



More about Vowels — 1 
Diacritical Signs 

( swar - matra ) 

As already said there are three basic vowels 
in the Punjabi language and these have their 
own signs. The other sounds are drawn from 
these and other sources not inherent in any con- 
sonant. In all, the Punjabi language has ten swar 
matras (diacritical signs) 



Sign (or Matra) 

inherent 
(No sign) 

T 
f 
t 



Name of sign 

H33 r (mukta) 



Sound 

a 

aa 



(kanna) 

fFRpcft (sihari) i 

fore! (bihari) ee 

»n2j? (onkar) u 
V8"&3 (dulainkre) oo 

ste (laanv) ay 

r?HT? (dulanv) ai 

tisr (hora) o 

(kanaura) au 



Example 

»f a 

hto laal 
fs=ra sir 
uta ; heera 
15 phul 
3^ bhalloo 

bayr 
Off paisa 

roti 
»B3 aurat 



20 



The above diacritical marks have their own 
places. Of these, f is written before the consonant 
(but pronounced after it); w and, are written 
below; T and 1 are written after the consonant; 
and^, "\ ~, "\ over the consonant. 

The three Gurmukhi vowels, § »f e are 
used only at the beginning of a word or as part 
of a compound vowel The vowels also have their 
nasalizad form when the sign " (tippi) or * (bindi) 
is placed above them. 

4 faBt (bindi) is used along \ X ~, and 
Examples 



word 


pronunciation 


meaning 




maan 


mother 




meen 


rain 




gaind 


ball 


H* 


main 


i 




gond 


gum 


?r 


jaun 


barley 



"fe w tf (tippi) is used with )$a& (mukia) f 

21 



Examples 



word 

331 
1" 



ptonuftotatlon 



tung 
singh 
sungh 

JOOH 



meaiUnn 

narrow 



lion 

smell 

lice 



There is another diacritical mark in Punjabi 
calked 'addhak' tim. y It is used to give the letter 
* double or a stressed sound. It is used over the 
letter preceding.the one which needs to be stressed. 

Examples 

Wtotti Pronunciation Meaning 

i^T buccha child 

H w y mukh face 

Vowel Clusters 

"the following clusters consisting of two 
vowch are common patterns :- 

Short +long vowels »ret ai, »re ae, au, 
^iew ia, re§ io, f»r ua 

Examples 

aret gai (went) feminine 
are gae (went) plural 



22 



aif gau (cow) 
»rf3P»f» aagiya (permission) 
83f<?§ larkaeo (o, boys') 
Fpnne suaad (taste) 

Long + Long vowels : 



wt aai, aae, nfy aau, ao, eeaa, 
eeoo, ^ uaa, §el uee, St uay, £»p ea, §ut ei 
eo §srt oi, oe, 



Examples 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




nai 


barber 


3^ 


taae 


uncles 




jao 


«o 




khau 


eat 




dhiayan 


daughters 




larkiyo 


o girfs ! 




sooaa 


a big needle 


* 


soeee 


needle 


booae 


doors 




giyaa 


went 




devee 


goddess 




deo 


give 



23 



loee 
toae 



blanket 
pits 



Exercise 

Q. Identify the following vowel signs and use 
them in words : 

Ans. 1 ytt'o<d (dulainkar) as in 

2 s*? (laanu) as in tre 

3 fs&\ (bindi) as in J 

4 (hora) as in fel 

Q, Read the following : 

<l few,- 3 W& 9 3 3T§, 8 HM^B, M ttsffdG 
£ stF. 5 ire* tf > Hfcl'tf T 

Ans. 1 giyya 2 jao 3 gau, 4 suaad 
5 larkaeo 6 bacha 7 gond 8 aagiya 



24 



LESSON 5 



More about Vowels— II 

This lesson provides a still better and deeper 
understanding of the three Punjabi vowels and 
their variants and how they are used along with 
the consonants. It also provides sufficient practice 
to distinguish between the long and short sounds. 

* " (a) - ( T ) 

Examples 



Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




phall 


fruit 




ajj 


today 




kail 


tomorrow 




kar 


do 


to 


nadh 


run 




such 


truth 




khat 


letter 


UfH 


ghar 


house 


33 


dar 


fear 




jail 


water 




Sentences : 




gn era 


bus kar - 


stop it 



25 



¥3 H3 - dar mutt - don't be afraid 

tfe 33 - jail bhar - fill the water 

II w (aa) (O 
Examples 

Word Pronunciation Meaning 

»ph aas hope 

we jaal net 

"3tb taar wire 

also, telegram 

7^ naam name 

Sentences : 

we w daal kha eat the pulses 

we aag baal light the fire 

«ra w ghar jaa go home 

III fe (i) f 
Examples 

Word Pronunciation Meaning 

fas mill meet 

fen dill heart 

ftfe jitt win 

fcs din day 



26 



>H33 B3P 

y 3 fey 



Sentences : 
attar lagaa 
khat likh 
kill thoke 



apply scent 
write a letter 
fix a nail 



dukkan wich jaa go to the shop 



IV 
Examples 

Word 



(ee) 



Pronunciation 

leer 
heera 
paani 
saathi 

Sentences : 

heera paa 
paani pee 



Meaning 

piece of cloth 
diamond 
water 
partner 

wear the diamond 
drink water 



V 

Examples 
Word 



t (u) 



Pronunciation 
phul 
pull 
dudh 



Meaning 

flower 
bridge 
milk 



27 



r 





Sentences ; 






phull sut 


throw the flower 




chup baedh 


sit quietly 




kucch khaa 


eat something 


T 7T 

VI 


? u 




Examples 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




aaloo 


potato 




bhaloo 


bear 


m 


boota 


plant 


as 


chooha 


rat 




Sentences : 




> H T H tffcl 


aaloo cheer 


cut the potato 




koora sut 


throw the garbage 


VTI 

V 11 


e te; 


\ ) 


Examples 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




shaer 


lion 




rail 


train 


i& 


tail 


oil 




mail 


meeting 




jail 


jail 




jeb 


pocket 




28 





Sentences : 



hut uf 3 5 

IB 

VIII 
Examples 
Word 

is 



thalle vekh ke chall look while 

walking 

daer na kar 
mera ghar door hai 



ai 



Pronunciation 

maeli 

bhaen 

aaeb 

saer 



don't delay 

my house 
is far 



Meaning 

dirty 

sister 

bad quality 
walk 



Sentences : 

ftst ante 7P m t maeli kameez na paa don't wear 

dirty shirt 

333 saer karan ja go for a walk 

era vaer na kar don't have enmity 

IX § (o) (-) 



29 



Eva moT^s 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




tol 


weigh 




khol 


open 




chor 


it* c 
tluet 


/TO 








hore 


more 




Sentences : 





ufe ghat na tol don't underweigh 

7? ir& booaa na khol don't open the door 
#3 feaf fw chor dig piya thief fell 



X 


m (au) 




Examples 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 




dor 


run 




pauri 


stairs 




hathauri 


hammer 




aurat 


lady 




kauli 


small utensil 




Sentences ; 





foa mti m t kauli vich subzi put vegetable in 
paa the utensil 

3t?-§a t?3 tej-tej daur run fast 

XI A (an) ( " ) 



30 



Examples 



word pronunciation meaning 

for mung beg or ask 

3ar jung war 

wir khund sugar 

gar rung colour 

3e kandh wall 

Sentences : 

hut °l ?p *p mung ke naa kha don't beg to eat 

tte s» v khund naa kha don't eat sugar 

§ai ^ hs rung naa mall don't throw (apply) 

colour 

XII w (au) (') 
Examples 

Word Pronunciation Meaning 

h^bi saang (to) copy 

or imitate 

tfa baanh arm 

3TB gaind ball 

sra baint cane 

wftj meeh rain 



31 



Sentences : 



ws 1 ^ saang na la don't imitate 

7? S3 baan na phar don't catch (the) am 
are 7m gaind naal khed play with the ball 
HtiJ fes ?? w meenh vich na ja don't go out in rain 



XIII 


fadak) 




Examples 






Word 


Pronunciation 


Meaning 


p y, *Y 


dilli 


Delhi 




yakka 


tonga 




bachcha 


child 




sacha 


truthful 




kacha 


weak 




rassa 


rope 




Sentences : 





3?? fe&t tfo chal dilli chal come to Delhi 

tfe* usft g&r yakka haoli chala drive the tonga 

slowly 

t baccha ronda hai the child weeps 

Exercise 

Q. Translate into English 



TP I 



Ans : 1. speak the truth 2. eat bread 3. read 
letter 4. sweep the ground (earth) 5. go 
towards school 6. play in the courtyard 
7. don't go out in (the) rain 

Read and write 



1 (HFf?) HS I 

2. A i sw ora^f a* i 

3. ?h1 aft orai* u i 

5. (i ) 3*53 itf i 

6. ^5, 5TH cJU I 

8. feu HaT5 5 I 

9. §U U I 

10. feU Hi sft oTUH US ? 

11. 3r1 oft ora^nft u ? 

12. wfl 4 fc7H^ M3Ht»f U* I 

13. §u epara sb!»h* i 

14. sft feU WcPS §gr U ? 

15. U* tft, feU HoTO HU 1 U I 



tussin baitho 

main kam karda haan 

tussi ki karde ho ? 

main sangtra khanda han 

tun bandar vekh 

chal, kam kar 

oh panj aadmi jande han 

eh skool hai 

oh vada steshain hai 

eh munde ki karde han 

tussin ki kardiyan ho ? 

assin kitaban parhdiyan han 

oh kagaz laindiyan han 

ki eh makan tera hai ? 

han ji, eh makan mera hai 

33 



16. §i w<5 Svft* us t tere dand saf nahin han ? 

17. Til, Fre us i ji saf han. 



Ans. 1. (you) sit 2. I do work 3. what are you 
doing ? 4. I am eating an orange 5. (you) see a 
6. monkey go, (and) do work 7. those five men 
are going 8. It is a school 9. that is a big station 
10. what do these boys do? 11. what do you 
(ladies) do ? 12. we (ladies) read books 
13. they (ladies) take paper 14. Is this house 
yours ? 15. yes please, this house is mine 
16. your teeth are not clean 17. well, (they) are 
clean. 



34 



LESSON 6 
More about Pronunciation 

The stress sign on Punjabi letters plays a very 
important role in pronunciation. It should be 
carefully studied and understood. 

The stress sign can be placed on letters so as 
to distinguish them from their Hindi pronunciation. 

For example in sfa (bas) the stress sign w is on 
V therefore it should be pronounced with a little 
force. 



Other Examples 







[ I] 




1) 


ghat ufe 


sat H£ 


sar R3 


2) 


chacha 


nana 


mama 


3) 


giti 3fl3l 


siti ritet 


pili Mfeft 


4) 


bili fro) 


till fes 


likhari fey^ 


5) 


jharu 


jhutha fs* 


daku 3^ 


6) 


sun 


dhupp wl 


phull ftf 


7) 


khed 43 


tere §i 


beri ttf 


8) 


vairi 


thaila ts 7 


paisa Oht 


9) 


tote fj 


soti H^t 


vekho 


10) 


aukha W' 


mauj H?7 


raula s?r 


11) 


dad 33 


roda #3* 


ugh §w 



35 



12] 



1. 


chal 


chal mar 


mar 


ban 




V 


WSS HH 


H*3 


S3 


2. 


chik 


cheek 








fast 








3. 


pujna 


poojna mul 


mool 






UtTcS 7 


Ut?<F H& 


HH 




4. 


mela 


maila vaid 


ved 






HOT 


hot #e 


St 




5. 


tala 


taula dhon 


dhaun 


bhora 










is* 


6. 


kripal 


chadar 
















7. 


katna 


kaatna 

















ban 

W5 



jai 

bhaura 



[3] 

ghar ja ura ?i T go to house 

kitaba ghar lai ja faW m & w take home (the) 

books 

vekho bahr kaun #y g^ra 3s T look, who sits 
baitha hai ? d ? outside ? 

ouu phasi ho gai fus" u asl he had been 
si h! hanged 

36 



[4] 



sarak utte motor ja rai hai 

H^of §"§ W 3vft d 

the motor is running on the road 
sarak va va chauri bani hai 

the road is sufficiently broad 
jhat pat hat jao ji 

tS tPf rft 

get away immediately 

[5 ] 

jhagra der da chal rahia si 

the quarrel has been on for long 

chaukidaran utte ik jhutha mukaddama karva ditta 

fafe^ fee? 95* HoTBHT oCd^ fe3 T I 

a false case was instituted against the chowkidar 
seth lachchhu nu bara dukh hoia 

seth Lachchu felt greatly aggrieved 

37 



[6] 



mainu sarho da sag bahut changa lagda hai 
m§ R9d* & to oth ^ai* nans? 1 $ I 
I like sarson saag very much 

ik jhuggi vich assi rat katti 

fesr ? art f^3 wft* 3*3 ere) 

we spent the night in the hut 

sari umar sanu sarho da sag yad rahega 

§H3 W§ HBO* ^ TO ddtff' 

we will remember sarson sag the whhle life 



38 



LESSON 7 



NOUNS 

Nouns are names of persons, places or things 
Examples hto fwu (Lai Singh); fest (Dilli); 
(kela - banana) 

Nouns are in singular and plural There are 
a few rules for changing singular nouns into 
plural nouns. 

1. The plural of a masculine noun ending in 
'a ( T ) can be formed by substituting 'a' for e 
C ), example : ate* (banana)— ot& (kele-bananas) ; 
ctm^t (kapra-cloth)-ofM3 (kapre-clothes) etc. 

2. The plural of feminine noun is formed 
by adding-a but if a word ends in a '?\ glide is* 
inserted before 'a'. Examples : v&ft (kursi-chair)- 
oraRto* (kursian-chairs); (man-mother) - H^* 
(mawan-mothers) 

3. Abstract nouns are formed in there ways : 

(a) by adding 'ms 1 ' to nouns : examples : $w 
(child) g^M^r (bachpana-childhood); 

(b) by adding to adjectives : example : 
He*3 (beautiful)-He"H3T (sundarta-beauty 



39 



(c) by adding *3' to verbs : example : fm 
(likh-write) - fo*3 (likhat-writing) 

Some Nouns 

(A) Masculine 

>>rs (abamb) mango 
»igH^ (afsar) officer 
»toh! (admi) man 
»ra r H (anar)pomegranate 

fto (sadhu) mendicant 
£h (kamm) work 
cp5\ (kuli) porter 
ure ( ghar) house, home 
(kela) banana 

(B) Feminine 

oThh (kalam) pen fel (chiri) she-bird 

opifi (kapi)exercise book arc? (in s^aw) (dak) post 

? 3T (kutti) bitch *r^3 (davat) inkpot 

(kuri) girl (bachchi) female child 

fe3Tg (kitab) book h* (ma ) mother 

HStfl (sabzi) vegetable wa\ (bari) window 
^H 1 ^ (almaii) shelf (divar) wall 



fer (chira) hc-sparrow 

(daktar) doctor 
53 (chhat) roof, ceiling 
Centre* (dakkhana) post 
office 
(naukar) servant 
(phal) fruit 
snF (bacha) child 
Hc?t?> (makan) house 
hth?3 (master) master 



40 



LESSON 8 
PRONOUNS 

Pronouns are words which are used in place 
of nouns, personal or impersonal, singular or 
plural, 

Examples 

h~ (main) I; 3" (tu) you; fea (ih), it, this, he she 
wiT (assi) we; Btfr (tussi) you (plural or singular 
when speaking in respect) 
oil (ki) what; §u (uh), he, she, it, they, that, those 

The pronouns have no gender, they however, 
affect the noun or the verb. 

Examples 

§u s^cp (that boy), §3 *53ort (that girl); §a viw 
(he will play), §u yiafi (she will play) 

OTHER PRONOUNS 

3rd person singular : fen (iss-it); §h (us-that) 
fc7H(kis-what); fcTH 3*(kis taun-from what or which) 
§h S (us nu-to him, her); fe* 3 (iss te-from that) 

3rd person plural : fe# (inhan— these); §& 
(unhan nu— to those); fircf (kinhan— whom); ?> 

41 



(inhan nu-to these); f (kinhan tu-from whom) 

2rd person singular : 3 4 (tain-you); h& (tainu- 
to you); h f* (tai thon-than you). 

2nd person plural : hh* (tussan-you); 3rf 3 
(tussan te-you (when stress is required,) It is 
used in singular when showing respect). 

1st person singular : h* (main-I); h$ (mainu- 
to me); h a a 1 (main thon-from) or than me) 

1st person plural : w (assan-we); w §(assan 
nu-to us); >m § (assan tay— we— when stress is 
required) 

*hr* § is economised in rro which is used 
more commonly. 

Compound Pronouns 

1. al-etf (kiki) (what things) : §S sft-cfi fxwtl 
(uthe kiki piya hai), what things are lying 
there ? 

h h (jo jo) (who/which individually) : * 

Go jo javega), he who goes 
?s (kujh kujh)(somewhat, a little) : atre ?s 
os T 5 i (bukhar kujh kujh haola hai), fever 
is somewhat slight. 

42 



<re 3s (kaun kaun)(which persons) : Hi to srer 
sre wiap ? (mere naal kaun kaun khedega) 
which of you will play with me ? 

oTsi W (koi koi) (Some, a few) : we\ oM 

w§ us i (koi koi hunbi chaile jande han) 
some people go even now. 

sht^t ggr^T (falaana falaana) (so and so) : §9 
sst^t ^t^t jft , c u the falaana falaana baitha 
si), so and so were- sitting there. 

2. sft sft (all equally) sft >>fa 3t w, h 4 stf* mh^u eras* 
(ki aukh, ki saukh main nahin parvah karda) 
difficulties or facilities, I don t mind. 

a h (he/she it ... who which) h ortan star 
Qo karega so bharega) he who does will repay 

oT3 org (some some) snsru^ b era wara* £ * 
(kujh hun laile, kujh magrun lai lavin,) 
you may take some now, some later. 

sM atf (koi, koi) one another, some other) 
ast w cM hV, (koi changa Koi manda,) some 
good, some bad. 

This use is conjunctive, i.e. the pronoun 
serves as conjunction. 

43 



3. ofl oft (ki da ki) <re w ?s (kujh da kujh) 
(quite different) : §a went ctf w 3) (?? ^ r 
cj? ) u faw i (oh admi kida ki ho gay a), he 
has become quite a different man. 

4. oft ?>' oft (ki na ki) something different : oft & 
oft u tf^r d,(ki na ki ho janda hai), some unto- 
ward happens. 

ore 7>* ?s (something or the other), wft 1 # 
cjF org h^t, (assin kujh na kujh kar lavange) 

we shall arrange something or other 
c7Et ?? cth! (someone or other), § crel c7h1 
i§hh fWs tnian, (mele te koina koi dost mil 
javega,) some or the other friend will meet at 
the fair. 

5. us oft (what else ?), 3fA* us ctf gtq^ u ?, (tussin 
hor ki chahande ho) what else do you want ? 

U3 *s (something else) 39 H3T (hor kujh 
mang leo,) ask for something else. 

cTh) (hor koi) (some one else), 07^ ?>u? 5, 
(hor koi nahin hai), there is nobody else. 

6. ere (a little more), us H5*§, (kujh hor 
sunao), tell something else 

cTel (somebody else), §a cM u? u#ar\ (oh 
koi hor hovega), he must be somebody else. 

44 



7. a 3Ht (whoever, anyone who) h ore} fe*re »rtgn, 
(jo koi idhar avega,) anyone/whoever comes 
this side 

?? ere (whatever) , * srs §s, H S3 r ,(go kujh dain 
lai laina), whatever they give, take. 

8. r?^h! (oh oret) (everybody, all), h?/uh cM 
fl 1 ^ u, (sabh/har koi janda hai.) everybody 
knows. 

m era (everything) , w ^ ste u trtan, (sabh 
kujh theek ho javega,) everything will be all 
right. 

9. huh 3? (much, a great deal) , sqs srs §h3 

tfg 5, (bahut kujh usde apne hath hai), much 
lies in his own hands. 

Relative and correlative links 

1. a feg §ot§ 33 s§ (jo man vich ave, 
oohio kar lo) what comes into your mind, 
do that or do what comes into your mind. 

2. fare* w& (jehra bole oohio buha 
khole) he who speaks may open the door 

3. ftrt 1 (ftm nq*) w hh?3 u f3i 4 (§n 33*) off (jiven 
(jis taraa) changga samajhde ho, tiwain 
(usse taran) karo, do as you think best 

45 



4. 3& 3^t§ gf H (jadoon auge 
tadoon tuhade nal gal kar lavange). when 
you come then we shall have a talk with you. 

5. fae 3 ura ?m & faw (jis de ghar dane 
usde kamlay vi siyane), he who has grains, 
his fools even are wise, money maks the 
mare go. 

6. fan fsra § §rr$ ui sof gfew (jis kise nu 
aakhiya, ussne hi nahin suniya), whosoever 
I told, did not listen. 

7. a ufw #gp (jo kujh hoeya changga 
hoeya. whatever has happened is all right. 

8. fas h* gteret r1 s# § <& trol pft ( jithe man chah- 
undi si bache nun lai jandi si. the mother 
took the child where she liked. 

9. fat CdtwT fas rTE 7 5 i§ us^ 3 (jithe kiday- 
in lala mill janda hai tenu puchchda hai. 
wherever lala meets, (he) asks about you. 

10 fajF tfa 5 3 *f (jina zor hai ne (una) 
la lau. use as much force as possible. 

1. In such sentences, called complex, the rela- 
tive (or subordinate) clause usually precedes 
the principal clause. English order is not 
uniformly so. 

46 



2. The relative is a pronoun as h, ftrcsF, or 
adjective as fan 3, f?nf or adverb as fat, 
fat 4 , fans. 

In the next main clause it may be balanced, 
optionally, by another word called the correla- 
tive which begins that clause, as in the first four 
sentences. In sentence No. 7, 8 and 9, there are 
no correlatives. 

3. The relative and the correlative pronoun or 
adjective need not be in the same case. 

fr?U3T g^T g^jrg ifg^T R t, §o^1 H* W<3 3Rjt d (jehra 

banda tuhanu puchchda si, uhdi maan mar 
gaye hai, (nominative and possessive), the 
man who inquired about you, his mother 
has died. 

Also see sentence No. 6. 



47 



LESSON 9 



Grammar 
VERB 

In Punjabi verb comes at the end. 



fel oft ft 1 

this what is, 
feu ?3Pft 5 * 
this chair is 

&U al tr ? 

that what is 
you who are 
that bed is 



eh ki hai 
what is this ? 

eh kursi hai 
this is a chair 

oh ki hai 
what is that ? 

tua kauri hain 
who are you ? 

oh, manja hai 
that is a bed 



Other Examples of verb 



for srt u ? 
feu 3 I 
fen htf? u » 
feu STCFH U : 
feu owto 3 i 

§3 HoTO U I 



eh ki hai 
eh kelam hai 
eh mez hai 
eh glass hai 
eh kameez hai 
oh raja hai 
oh Jarka hai 
oh makan hai 



48 



feu sft u ? or §u a! 5 ? is a useful sentence. 
You can get words from any person for anything 
by putting such a question. 

Interrogative 

.oft fci Hi t ? ki eh mez hay ? 

what (is it that) it table is. Is it a table ? 

^ (u*) ?ft, feu u i aho (han) ji, eh mez hay. 
yes please, this table is. yes please, it is a table 

eft §u »PHHt ?juf u ? ki, oh admi nai hay. 

what (is it that) that man not is. is that not a man ? 

tft suT (sut 4 tft) §u wh! t^uT - u i 
ji nai (nai ji) oh admi nai hay. 
please no (no please), that man not is. 
no please that is not a man. 

L Both the above questions can be expressed 
without the interrogative word oft, the sense of 
interrogation being conveyed by the same inton- 
ation (rising at the end.) 

2. Note the position of sut\ not. It comes imme- 
diately before the verb. zu\r is pronounced as nai, 
i.e. -h- is a tone. 

49 



3. There is an interesting difference between 
English and Punjabi expressions of reply in such 
contexts. In English, in reply to "it is not a book" 
you say, "no", it is not a book ? but in Punjabi 
we may say, fea fs^. suf 3 i 



4. When respect is not meant in the reply, 
is omitted. 



Examples 

oft §a ura $ ? 

eft feu sut 5 ? 

c^jf feu Here 3 i 

u* vft §u oth! 5 i 
feu s^oryw 5 i 



is he in the house ? 
is it not a bazar ? 
yes, he is an officer 
no, this is- a school 
no, this is a hospital 
yes please, he is a cooly 
yes, this is not a post 
office 

•no, he is not an officer 



Some Verbs 



to ask 




(puchhna) 


to buy 


* ditto* 


(kharidna) 


to be 




(hona) 


to bathe 




(nahana) 


to break 




(tutna) 



50 



to burn 




(oalna) 


to come 




(auna) 


to catch 




(pharnajt 


to cut 




(vadhna) 


to dance 




(nachna) 


to do 


old 6' 


(karna) 


to drink 


MIS 1 


(peena) 


to drown 




(dubna) 


to escape 
to enter 




(bachna) 




(varna) 


to fall. 




(dehnja) 


to fall 




(digna) 


A. J 

to dance 




(nachna) 


to fear 


sfdA' 


(darna) 


* to get up 




(uthna) 


to go 




Qana) 


to give 




(dena) 


to hear 




(sunna) 


to jump 




(kudna) 


to keep 




(rakhna) 


to know 




(janana) 


to listen 




(sunana) 



51 



to leave 


553^ 


(chadna) 


to live 




(jeena) 


to laugh 




(hasna ) 


to make 


y<S'G<£' 


(banauna) 


to meet 




(milna) 


to open 




(kholna) 


to play 




(khedna) 


to put 




(paona) 


to read 




(parna) 


to reach 




(pahuchna) 


to ring 




(vajne) 


to sing 




(gana) 


to stitch 




(seena) 


to sit 


Hid' 


(baithna) 


to sew 




(seena) 


to swim 




(terna) 


to stop 




(rukna), sfaHS' 






(thaherna) 


to speak 




(bolna) 


to see 




(vekhna) 


to sink 




(dubna) 


to say 


>H T tfc5 T 


faakhna) 


to smile 




(hasna) 



5? 



to 


sleep 




(saona) 


to 


sell 




(vechna) 


to 


stay 




(rahina) 


to 


be seen 




(dikhna) 


to 


touch 




(chhuhna) 


to 


take out 




(kadhna ) 


to 


tremble. 




(kambna) 


to 


think 


HS^ 


(sochna) 


to 


take 




(layna) 


to 


wish 




(chauhna) 


to 


weep 




f/aona^ 


to 


wfilV 

W Cl-lIV 






to 


write 




(likhna) 


to 


wake 




Gagna) 


to 


wash 


TO 


(dhona; 






Exercise 





Q. Translate into Punjabi 
• (1) this is a table 

(2) he is not a man 

(3) who are you ? 

(4) no, he is not an officer 
(5; is he in the house ? 



53 



Ans. (i) fei hb 3 

(3) f *?> tr ? 

(8) FvOf, §3 WTO TkS 1 V 

(M) eft §tf W tr ? 

Q! Read the following : 

(H) 33S» (P) fe^. (3) *re?T (8) nmj^r (q) fys 

Ans. (t) pharrna (catch): (2) likhna (write) 
(3) karna (do); t (4) aakhna (say); (5) vekhna 
(see or look) 

Compound Verbs with Roots 

a. §J v / Is / ^ fgp>r 1 

he came/sat/is tired (he sat down tired) 

A* §?/ #s» ? may I get up ? 

fen cfr-f hu 1 
you finish up this job. 

we broke into a 1: ttle laughter. 

b, >hth>A ^b! ft* h§ 1 

three men were drowned in the river. 

§*J »f T M3 T cfH era gfe>HT Ht I 

he was going after doing his work. 
54 



ft§ for saa w fHfe»r i 

a friend came and met me. 



>xhF >jfyr £w so! 4 era Fra3 i 
we cannot do such a difficult task; 

In the above sentences the underlined are 
compound verbs. 

1. The structure of the verb is the same in both 
(a), and (b) i.e. the main verb is in the root form 
and the subsidiary verb is conjugated according 
to tense, mood, number, gender and person. 

2. There is a special purpose of marking two 
groups of sentencs. Under 'a' two verbs convey a 
single idea, while under *b\ the two verbs retain 
their individual meaning. In fact, in the second 
category, it is said that one action (subsidiary) 
takes place after the other (main one). 

3. The following verbs follow the main verbs in 
its root form : 

auna to come 

tre» jauna to go 

§3^» utthna to rise 

932? baithna to sit 



55 



8^1 


laina 


to take 




daina 


to give 


to 


dhaina 


to fall 




sutna 


to throw 




rahina 


to continue 


m& 


sakna 


can 




mama 


to die 




marna 


to beat 




rakhna 


to keep 




chhadna 


to leave 



Compounds with present participles 

aiM T H 333 §fl cSZJH 1 (W) TT^ § | 

Gopal bahut tez nathda (chala) janda hai 
(Gopal goes on running very fast) 

assin ithe kayi sal an tun rahinde (chale) aaye haan 
(we have been living here since several years) 

1. The main verb is in the present participle 
form which changes with gender and number. 

2. The subsidiary verb is conjugated in tense, 
mood, gender, number and person. 

3. The number of such compound verbs is very 
limited. 



56 



Compounds with Inf imitives 

a. fcj TO ute ft I 

(oh chah peen lagga hai) 

(he is about to drink tea.) 
• 

fevT S/W o^r fa) UV I 

(maithoon eh kam nahin (karan) honda) 

(this woik cannot be done by me.) 

• 

h* §3$ wot s# ute i 

(main oohnu sharab nahin peen devanga) 

(I shall not let (allow) him (to) drink wine) 

b. £r ti£ w& *p*f i 

(main hune jana chahunda haan) 
(I want to go just now) 

t§ fej cftf qTHc^ 1 M#3F (M#ai») 

(tainoo eh kam karna pavega (payega) 
(you will have to do this work) 

wfy feg fod ona^ u*^ i 

(sanu iho jehe kam karne painde nan) 

we have to do such jobs) 

From the above sentences we find s 

1. There are certain subsidiary verbs (Bare*) 
• denoting to begin to ' denoting 



57 



possibility' and denoting 'permission 
with which the main verb is in indeclinable 
infinitive form i.e. without terminal-a. 

2. Note the difference between w* feniw suf sre 
«\ I cannot do this work; and h{ fei w 
?yft afergV, I have not to do thi* work. 

More Compound VoYbs 

There is another imporant category of com- 
pound verbs which are formed with nouns or 
adjectives. The idea af action is one, although 
there are two words. The following ace common 
verbs added to substantives. 

1. enra% as to srownaf karna (to pardon, to 
forgive); fegre eras*— shikar karna (to hunt); sre 
sra^-band karna (to close); erne craCT-yad karna 
(to remember); tthj irazP-iama. karna (to add); 
»f#Fra cre?>T-afsos karna (to regret); .are* arasr-ganda 
karna (to spoil); dher kerna (to pile); 

7>WHe7 T 3 oTTOT-namaskar karna (to salute); M&aa 
ara^-manzoor karna (to accept) 



58 



The number of such compounds is quite 
large.* 

2. (re?, as rera d&~swar hona(to ride, to mount);, 
am a^-gusse hona (to be angry) 

3. »rt*3 T , as wSsMfcarodh auna (to angry); 
H3H »n^3 I -?harm auna (to be ashamed); we w^s* 
yad auna (to remember); w^T^-bukhar auna 
(to have lever); UH-w^-hosh auna (to come to 
senses); >n^<r-kam auna (to be useful). 

4. HTO5», as ?3 HW-fhoot marna (to tell a lie); 
w»3s»-vaj marna (to shout). 

5. as KaRp-bh«kh lagna (to feel 
hungry); ftwn sarcv-piyas lagna (to feel thirsty); 
§a» sBRff-bura lagna (tc take ill); us* sfcre^pata 
lagna (to come to knowledge). 

6. 3s% as €ro €&-udhar dena (to lend), tfr #9 
-dhaka dena (to push); H&a^-sakh dena (to 
give advice). 

REVISION 

Q. Translate into English 

(Al 

1. waril i its \ kursi te baitfi 



59 



2. shs f H & §3 I 

3. 3s tea §ai#t 3T m t i 

4. «ra ? i 

5. h§ ^5 #y i 

6. ^^feHj^^ft* 

7. >HHT MHtf 1 5¥5f 

8. Hffl 1st § ftzft*!* 

9. H A W U* I . 

10. H* HoR5 t^'dl 1 I 
■ 



kamal da phul na tor 
kan vich ungli na pa 
ghar ja 
mere val vekh 
chacha kise nu chaku 
nahin denda 
assm parsn bazar 
jawange 

tuasin bhaine nu chithi- 
yan kiun likbde ho 
main roti khanda han 
main skool javanga 



Ans. 1. sit on the chair. 2. do not pluck the 
lotus flower. 3. do not put your finger in the 
ear. 4. go home. 5. look at me. 6. uncle 
does not give knife to anyone. 7. we shall go to 
the market tomorrow. 8. why do you write 
letters to sisters. 9. I eat food. 10. I shall go 
to school. 

(B) 

(bache anaar lainde hail) 

the children take pomegrenate 



60 



rtntiW 3T*^# 3?> I 

(kurrian nachdiyan gandian han) 
girls dance and sing 

(oh copy vekhda hai, lainda hai, chhunda hai) 
he sees the copy, takes it, touches it 

(bacha skool janda hai, parhda hai) 
the child. goes to school (he) studies 

(naukar roti pakanda hai, khanda hai) 
the servant cooks food, (he J eats it 

(bachian sabzi, phal khadiyan han) 
(female) (children eat vegetables and fruit) 

(daktar kazaz gande karda hai, sochda hai, 
hasda hai) 

the doctor makes the paper dirty, thinks, 
smiles 

(oh ghar janda hai, pani peende hai) 
he goes home, drinks water 



61 



LESSON 1 0 
MORE ABOUT V£HBS 

When in a sentence one action . immediately 
follows another, the one occurring first takes the 
absolute form, hence it is called absolutive. 

Example : I will come after I take tea. This 
sentence has two verbs, "Some" being first is 
absolutive. In Punjabi we will say. 

(main chah pike avanga) 
OttMr Examples 

1. he came running 

§3 % > H T fe>»f I I 

(oh daur ke aaya) 
2- he came alter going there 

§n §i* u at »f»fe»P i 

(oh uthon ho ke aaya) 

3. he came and sat down 
&3 wiz its fgynr i 
(oh aa ke baith giya) 



62 



1 . In the absoJutive form the root is "3" (after 
doing, having done); as in "3 3" (after taking) 
"§3 (after running, having run). 

2. The absoftrtive form is adverbial in nature 
and, therefore, «o* affected by gender, number 
ox person. 

3. The order in the sentence is the logical order 
in the action. 

Causal Verbs 

Causal verbs mean words which cause some 
action to be done. 

a. (1) m* M3^F a* main parhda kan 

(I Tead) 

h* Mf^s* Tfi main parhaunda han 

(I teach) 

&p fm«ire* 9 loha pighalda hai 
(iron melts) 

(2) §o eftr fmw^^r 5 0 jj s i sa pighlaunda naf 

(he meltiss lead) 

(3; 4 "ft ^ tun & vekhada hain 

(what do you see ?) 
^ ofl fev^re* 5 ? tun ki vikhaunda hain 
(what do you show ?) 



63 



In the above sentences the words "M^ 7 ^*" 
"fi wki ' Gtf ?', "fevStrt* * are causal. 



b (1) §a 3 

(2) §0 0 



oh dorda hai 
(he runs) 

main uhnu dauranda 
han (I make him run) 

oh letda hai 

(he lies down) 

oh bache nu litaunda hai 

(he makes the child lie 

down) 



(3) h* »fm£ oiui ttht u* main apne kapre dhona 

han (I wash my clothes) 
h* »w£ ijui main apne kapre dhua- 

nda hau (I get my clothes 
washed) 

•In these sentences , ^d«Gtji\ 'fa^'G^', q^§^', 
are causal. 

1. Causal verbs are an important feature of 
Punjabi. They are invariably transitive, as 
in 'a', above. In English there are separate 
words for intransitive as 'see' and transitive 



64 



as 'show'. Sometimes the same word, as 
*melt' or 'burn* serves as transitive as well 
as intransitive. Sometimes, we have to trans- 
late into "make somebody do" or "get a 
thing done", as in "b" above. In Punjabi, 
there is uniformity of construction. 

2. The causals are usually made by appending 
-*>h t ' or - < »^§ , to the root verb but, as in such 
cases the stress is on the second syllable, the 
first (i.e. prestressed) syllable becomes weak 
and short. Compare— 

_ sutna hz 7 ^ - sutauna 
(to throw) (to get it thrown) 

ire* - vekhna fey*^ - vikhauna 
(to see) (to shcm^ 

- pharna - pharauna 

(to hold) (te^ma^e somebody 

hoid) 

3. A V-glide is insw^d.whej* a root ends in a 
long vowel. The Shortening of that vowel is 
of course, essential. 



65 



w& - dhona 
(to wash) 
- khana 
(to eat) 



^^c^ - dhuvana 

(to get washed) 
- khuvana 
(to get eaten) 



4. Some verbs have inserted between the 
letters of the roots, as in 



5. If the active verb is transitive, the causal form 
has two objects, expressed or unexpressed, 
as in 

bacha dudh peenda hai 
(the child drinks (sucks) milk) 

main bache nu dudh pilaundi haft 
(I am getting the child drink milk) 



Some verbs have an additional causal form, 



ss^r - balna 
(to burn) 

- varna 
(to enter) 



rorsr - baalna 

(to get burnt) 
- vaarna 
(to get entry) 



Second Causal 



66 



usually called the * second causal' which is made 
by appending or to the root. 

Such verbs are those which indicate real 
activity in the second causal sense, as fast Mf^nr, 
-chithi parhv,ana (to get a person ask another 
person to read the letter) 

Verbs ending in long consonants have only 
one causal form. 

Vocabulary 

1. (to see), fere* (to show, to make some 
body see), fey^s* (to tell someone to get 
another person see). 

(to wake up), nap^ (to awaken to make 
a person wake up), trere^ (to get a person 
awakened by another). 

nz& (to listen), (to make listen), 
(to get a person make someone else to (listen) 
(to speak), (to call, to make a person 
speak), y^'<£' (to make someone to call some 
one else to speak). 

(to quarrel), (t 0 make...fight); 
wd^'e 1 (to make somebody else to excite others 



67 



to fight). 



(to save oneself), (to save another); 
kw*"' (to get somebody save another). 

Similarly sngfct (to take out), (to open 
(into), (to play), (to cut), Oo tie) 
foss* (to move into), (to get aside), get their 
causal forms in w and ^. 

Exercise 
Translate into English 

1. fea fes ^#>tf ate ^ sfa>tf n?> i to ^ ate sra-sra 
"fen ate ^ q2 £h ^ ^a! 2? 3 T #" 1 

M3 7?r' tiforf I fen 33* 33 <T3 ifc? tf^ t 

One day girls were playing with a ball. Their 
ball again and again struck the window of a house 
One girl said, ""don't throw the ball this side lest 
the window of that house should break. But the 
girls did not agree. When they threw the next 
ball, the glasspane of the window of that house 
was broken. 



68 



2. fesr 35ft $frs ^ # r! 1 §to ag3 §h § grcfti 
^ >* »rM3 ura grcft 3* §h tttft ^ w* 3 ufew fa is fen 
5?^ 3 cutf 1 3* s^ort 3fe saft, "h^ Hat husIS to 

A girl was playing a ball. She played for 
very long. When she went to her house her mother 
asked what had delayed her so long. The girl said 
"My friend made me sit late, that is why I was 
delayed." Hearing this, the mother said nothing 
to the girL 

3. tea Msar *3*«TfifhM3ar 33 3r?h §3 ea 
sra urn few \ h* 3 if few— 3* £3 fef* ? §3 orte sar» 

§TJ f^5l Hi t Sfcte* fejr t yjjsfH 3^ ?P3 53* $ 

A boy was riying a kite, the kite Went high 
up. He went home late. The mother asked> "why 
are you late"? The boy said, " I have been delay- 
ed by my friend. I wanted to come quickly. He 
did not allow me to leave. I got his mother tell 



69 



him to let me go. But he was very obstinate- 
went on talking. With great difficulty I got rid of 
him." 

4. fe?> for ue w fep i ur§ §h£ 

#fw feg »f^n) fRR# ^tsf-^or sir}" srs* afa feu T at 

"MBl-THH 7 <2 cFH 3 c?S ^§ l" ^ H# § ^3^S ^3 

^ MTTU UH fHH TO I §R5 ^ & # fc§ I fee 33* 

§h w" i £ feof arete ^ H^e atel i 

One day a boy was going home from school. 
He saw on the way that a man with disabled feet 
was sitting and saying, "in God's name give some 
thing". That boy had got fifty paise as pocket 
money. He gave it to the beggar. This way the 
boy helped a poor man. 

Q. Translate into Punjabi 

1. you may be feeling hungry, eat some bread 

2. he had been studying whole-heartedly 

3. we went to bazar yesterday 

4. you will have to go to school 

5. we go for a walk daily these days 

6. I read a book 

7. I get the room cleaned by a servant, why do 

you make it dirty ? 



7Q 



8. excuse me, why are you getting angry with me 

9. what do you do these days ? 
10. I write a letter to my friend 

Ans. «u 3§ f v y ricift utaft, S^l $i\ w h n i 

P. §H93 feH ?>TO M3*Et ofd*!' ufuV 5 I 

3. MH* oTH WW* gr§ Hi I 

8. f § HcTH Hp t?^ I 

M. >HHT »ftl 3fl 5^3 tFU I 

5. h 1 sare swa* RTjg sra*^ u» § ^hF are fe6 

Mt ^ U ? 

t. srH^r, afH fof§ u ? 
lO, H i »fnj£ HR3 § fast few 7 U* I 



71 



LESSON 1 1 



TENSES 

There are three tenses in Punjabi— present, 
past and future-as in any other language. We 
will discuss each one by one. 



1. Present tense 
1st and 2nd person 



1. 




(main ki karda hain) 




what do I do ? 


(masculine) 


2. 




(tun nahnda hain) 




you take a bath 


(masculine singular) 


3. 


H" 1 oft ofTOt ? 


(main ki kardi haun) 




what do I do ? 


(feminine) 


4. 




(assi ki karde haun) 




what do we do ? 


(masculine plural) 


5. 




(assi ki kardian haun) 




what do we do ? 


(feminine plural) 


6. 




(tussi turdian ho) 




you (ladies) walk 


(feminine plural) 



From these sentences we find that change in 
the form of the verb clearly indicates the gender 



72 



of the noun-ore^* (masculine), ora^J (feminine) 
IHH 1 (masculine), i^to 1 (feminine) 



1. In English sentences like 'we go* or 'you go' 
the gender is not clear, but in Punjabi, the gender 
is made clear in the participle. Hence the declen- 
sion of the verbal form according to gender is 
very significant and essential. 

2. The participle changes with gender and 
number, and the auxiliary verb with number and 
person. 

3. The following are the forms of the auxiliary 
verb u^, (to be) in the present tense 



singular 



plural 



3rd per 
2nd per 
1st per 



us (u?>) 

TP 



2. Present Continuous 



§u of! ofg^r § ? 



(oh ki karda hay) 
(what is he doing ? 
or, what does he do ?) 



73 



(oh parda hay) 
(he is reading) 

(oh utthda hay) 
(he rises) 

(oh baithda hay) 
(he sits) 

(oh kam karda hay) 
(he is doing work) 

(oh kitab parhda hay) 
(he is reading a book) 



1. From the above examples we find that the 
present tense (mas. sing.) is formed by adding — 
sr» to the root, and supplementing it with sing. 3 
or pi. to i 

2. But, if the root ends in a vowel the latter is 
nasalized; as : w& jandan (goes); ur^ T peenda 
(drinks); lainda (takes); w& dainda (gives); 
iu^r chhehnda (touches); f ^ ronda (weeps); h^' 
saunda (sleeps). 

3. If the root ends in-a, we have a u— glide 
optionally, as 3n§^r gaunda (sings), or are* ganda 
(sings). 



74 



4. In fact, in these cases is a present partici- 
ple form; and because participles behave like 
adjectives, the form is declined in gender and 
number 

Masc. sing. 

w 3 | (bacha bolda hai) 

(the child speaks) 

f& 5 i (kuta turda hai) 

(the dog walks) 

fo^r bf^t 5 | (chirra ganda hai) 

(a bird sings) 

Masc. pi. 



FPU SUf TO I 

Fern. sing. 

33} e^et CI 1 



(daktar ki kehende hain 
(what do doctors say ?) 
(sadhu nahin darde hain) 
(sadhus do not fear) 

(bachi ki aakhdi hai) 
(what does the (female) 
child say ? ) 
(kuti daordi hai) 
(a bitch runs) 



75 



fet ai^l % 1 (chirri gandi hai) 

(a she^bird sings) 

Fern. pi. • 

c^i»ft 7^s\»^ to i (kurrian nachdiyan han) 

(girls dance) 

h*^* c7H cresW to i (mawan kam kardian 

han) 

(mothers do work 
(mothers work) 

Note that in the present tense, the auxiliary 
verb ends the sentence and has no gender. 

When an assertion is made, or a natural 
fact stated, the English words "is'' and 'are" 
*-are rendered by q& u, u f to, etc. 

Examples 

era* u u i kuta ganda honda hai 

(the dog is ugly) 
ht^t 3aft>>r ef utj i mawan changiyan 

hondian han 
(mothers are good) 
§u oft Bra^ T 9 7 (oh ki karda hai) 



(what does he do ?) 



76 



§3 sfi ? (oh ki karde hain) 

(what do they do ?) 

§a oft o7g^ ft ? (oh ki kardi hai) 

(what does she do ?) 

§u eft 3TO}»f 35 ? (oh ki kardiyan hain) 

(what do they do ?) 

Past Tense 
( A ) 

Singular 
Masc. 

h ufew (tun daoriya) (you ran) 
>r 3icr (main gaya) (I went) 
§3 wtew (oh aaya) (he came) 

Fern. 

ssi B3l (kurri daori) (the girl ran) 
^ R3l (bachi suti) (the child slept) 
f ^ (bhain aaye) the sister came) 

Plural 
Masc. 

§3 (oh daure) (they ran) 
>mY h# (assin doore) (we ran) 
MFfr" jf§ (assin sute) (we slept) 

77 



Fern. 



(kurrian daorian) (the girls ran) 
safor g 3*W (bachian sutian) (the babies slept) 
YijTtfw (bhaina aayian) (the sisters came) 

1. Note that in each of these cases, the verb is 
intransitive. 

2. The subject is in its ordinry form. 

3. The past tense is, in fact, past participle in 
form. And we know that a participle, like an 
adjective, ending in -'a' is changed into - *e' in 
masc. pl,-T in fern, sing and 4 ia' in fem. pi. thus 
§3 H3T (he slept), §a q w t (they slept), §n (she 
slept), §u h"3>h* (they(fem) slept). 

4. The normal or masculine common ending 
of masculine sing is - *ia' added to the root, as 
in r H T %\ y H T (he) came; efew Che; ran; tpfaw (he) 
woke up; ^fe»r (he) walked; ^faw (it) rang; 
irfb>r (he) sat; §fc>tf (he) got up; etc. 

5. (not) immediately precedes the verb, as 
usual. h~ h (main nahin suta)I did not sleep; 

suf 't?3>n T (kurriyan nahin daorriyan) the 
girls did not run. 



78 



Past Tense 
( B ) 



H 4 #/6H [ * ] [ M^S ] Hfe>HT 

I/you/he [by] [lesson] listened. 

w£ (mas. pi.) 
listened lessons. 

w/inVffr I $ ] [ ] Hfe»f 
we/you/they/listened a lesson. 

listened lessons 



ara wz\ (f) 
listened the 
word 

gfe* H^l»r(f.pl.) 
listened words 

3TB H^t 

listened the 
word. 

listened words 



I/you/he or we/you/they told the doctor. 

h* i7§h or w/l Ht [ ^ 1 ^ t ^fow ' 

I/you/he or we/you/they told the mother. 

I/you/he or we/you/they told the doctors. 

m/^/Sh or »f^Fr/t§ T [ £ ]h^ § ^fiw i 
I/you/he or we/you/they told the mothers* 

us% to be, shows existence, and at the same 
time serves as an auxiliary, as in forming present 

79 



tense. It is, therefore, very important to make one 
self thoroughly familiar with these auxiliaries, we 
have detailed their forms in the present tense. For 
the past & other tenses, the following may be noted 

Past: 
Singular 

I / thou / he was ill. 
Plural 

we / you / they were ill. 

Fft does not change with gender, numbr or 
person. 



§3 wfetyr (oh aaya) he came. 

(past indefinite.) 
§3 Mifew d (oh aaya hai) he has come. 

(present perfect) 



Singular 
Also 1st per h 1 sto^ h* 
2nd per 3 sfrre h* 
3rd per §3 h! 



Plural 



Extension of Past Participle 



80 



§u »ffe»fT (oh aaya si) he had come. 

(past perfect) 

§a »fTf3»p d# (oh aaya hove) if he has/might have. 

come (present condi- 
tional perfect) 

§a »ffe»n otar (oh aaya hovega) he would have 

come, (future 
perfect) 

§u wfew (oh aaya hunda) If he had/might 

have come, (past 
conditional perfect 

Exercise 

Q. Translate into Punjabi 
1. he went home. 2* I went to my shop. 3. we 
came by bus. 4. if he has taken his meals, tell 
me. 5. he must have gone to his friend. 
6. have you come now ? 7. we went with him. 
8. see, the stars have come out and the moon 
has come up. 

Ans. i. §u ura few Rt i p. h* »FMst hsto 3 fmfl *♦ 

3. >HSfl* SH 3 W I 8. §H?> ret TCl U# 3» H*§ HH^ 



81 



D. Wft §3§ 3TE H 1 I tf. #9, 3*3 fooTO U?>, 33 

Future Tense 

Mas. 

H* TO ofd'dl 1 I 

(main kal kam karanga.) 
I shall do work tomorrow. 

(tun kitab/kitaban likhenga) 
you will write a book/books. 

(chacha/mama/oh phul torrega) 
uncle/he will pluck flowers. 

> >fpft i m3j5 arB^t i 

(assin parson kam karange) 

we shall do work day after tomorrow. 

(tussin kitab/kitaban likhoge) 
you will write a book/books. 

/ mi / &J f& 33(531 I 

(chache/mame/oh phul torrange) 
uncles/they will pluck flowers. 



82 



Fern. 



H i »fa feU 5W ora*gft | 

(main aj eh kam karangi) 
I will do this work today. 

■i • 

(tun kitab/kitaban likhengi) 
you will write a book/books. 

(chachi/mami/oh phul tor/egi) 
aunt will pluck that flower. 

(assin karangiyan) 
we wili do. 

Bfftr fan** / fsiBw fey aft »r 1 
(tussin kitab/kitaban likhogiyanj 
you will write a book/books. 

w^tM* / wfaw I §3 f h 335- gftnft 1 
(chachian/mamian/oh phul torrangiyan) 
aunts will pluck that flower. 

To form plural,, the verb acquires 'w' in 
singular masculine and 'aP in plural masculine. 
For example sratar (sra^at) but V changes into 'aft* 



83 



in singular feminine and 'afar' in plural feminine 

Thus the future *3F\ besides nouns, adjectives 
and participles, changes with number and gender. 

This change is simple and regular. 
Exercise 

Q. Translate into Punjabi 

1. I will do work 

2. we will do work 

3. he will do work 

4. you will do work 
5/ she will do work 
6. they will do work 

Ans. h. ft* 50-f otrfw i 

3. §77 5W oftm' I 

8. 3 sw 3rim T i 



84 



LESSON 1 2 



ADJECTIVES 

Adjectives are those words which qualify a 
noun or pronoun e. i. black boy (spot In 
this sentence black is an adjective. 

In English, the adjective undergoes no change 
with the change in the number and gender of the 
noun or pronoun, but in Punjabi a change 
comes. 

For Example 

Sing. Mas. 

opb* h3o?t (kala larka) black boy 
Fem. 

oth! H35^ (kali larki) black girl 
Plur. Mas. 

era HHsr (kale larke) black boys 
Fem. 

oretf *53oft»ft (kali larkiyan) black girls 

From the above two examples follows the 
rule that adjective changes with number and gen- 
der of the masculine noun. But in the case of 
femimine noun, singular or plural, the adjective 



85 



undergoes no change 
Other Examples 

1. §U W 5 I 

(oh achha daktar hai) 
he is a good doctor 

(oh achhi daktar hai) 
she is a good doctor 

2. h* ^at hto i 

(main changge skool janda han) 
I go to a good school 

H* t7*t^ 3* I 

(main changge skool jandi han) 
I go to a good school 

3. I w& 3* i 

(tun bura munda hain) 
you are a bad boy 

(tun buri kurri hain) 
you are a bad girl 

86 



4. feu uu^ Hero u i 

(eh purana makan hai) 
this is an old house 

feu vru^s Hsns us i 

(eh puraney makan hain) 

these are old houses 

5. §U #3t ?Sft U I 

(oh bhairi kuri hai) 
she is a bad girl 

§U f^t W3\>>P US I 

(oh bhairi kurian han) 
they are bad girls 

6. feu fecf Wtt U I 

(eh ik mez hai) 
this is one tab] 

§U $ HtJ US (US, S) I 

(oh do mez han) 
those are two tables 

7* feu fee? ^urfl u i 
(eh ik kursi hai) 
It is a chair 



(oh char kursian han) 
these are four chairs 

(oh purani kalam hai) 
that is an old pen 

§U Vrai^H* o?HH* U5 I 

(oh puranian kalman han) 
those are old pens 

9. feu ws ure u r ' 
(eh saf ghar hai) 
this is a clean house 

feu fro uju us r 
(eh saf ghar han) 
these are clean houses 

10. feu h*s »rawul 3 1 
(eh saf almari hai) 
this is a clean shelf 

feU W% >HHH r ^t > >f i ' US I 

(eh saf almarian han) 
these are clean shelves 
88 



11. feu ssre u i 

(eh jawan naukar hai) 
this is a young servant 

feu ti^s £ora us i 

(eh jawan naukar han) 

these are young servants 

12. feu tre*s <pft u i 

(eh jawan kurri hai) 
this is a young girl 

feu TRTC ttUP UH 1 

(eh jawan kurrian han) 
these are young girls 

Adjectives ending in— a (mas.) change with 
the change in number or gender as in No. 4 above. 

Adjectives other than those ending in-a 
and cardinal number do not change with the 
change in number (or) gender. 

Attributive and Predicative Adjectives 

Attributive adjectives are placed immediately 
before nouns as in English. 



89 



Examples 

(a) fear Hut sthh u feu sthw huI u 

(eh men kalam hai) (eh kalam meri hai) 

(this pen is mine) 

(this is or my pen) 
feu tut fsrarg u feu te^ 3^ 5 

(eh teri kitab hai) (eh kitab teii hai) 

(this book is yours) 

feu U3^S\ ft ffcU UcTCl U 

(eh purani kalam hai) (eh kalam purani hai) 
(this pen is old) 

feu hu! uu^ 5reH u, this is my old pen 
,su wul oreH u, this pen of mine is old 
feu var^t otbh huI u, this old pen is mine 

Plural feu huW othw* tfo 1 

(eh merian kalman han) 
(these are my pens) 

feu HUt»P U3I 

(eh kalman merian han) 

feu HaW UUT^fofi olHH* US I 

(eh merian puranian kalman han) 

fb) oft feu WU* U ? 

(ki eh mera makan hay ?) 
(Is this my house ? 



90 



Attr. 

>H* a tfl (tfi U»), fej (3U^) HoTO 5 I 

(aho ji (ji han), eh tera / tuhada makan hai) 
(yes please, this is your house) 

Pred. 

tfl PkJF, feU ($) | 

(ji nahin, eh makan tera nahin hai) 
(no sir, this house is not yours) 

oil feu «re uurf 9 ? 
is this house old (predicative) 
»f r u tit (tft u$, feu wu uu^t 5 i 
yes sir, this house is old. 
PI. feu m vu»3 us (us) i 

The order of attributive and predicative ad- 
jectives in a Punjabi sentence is the same as in 
English. But remember that Punjabi adjectives, 
if they end in-a (not cardinal numbers), change 
in gender and number, as, e.g. 

Mas. Sing >fr Mas. PI. Hi 

Fern. Sing, nut Fern. PL hu>x* 

Adjectives ending in-a take-e in plural -i in 
fern, sing, and- ia in fern., pi., thus hu% vra, hu% 



91 



Cardinal numbers-fect (ik), one; s (do) two; 
fix (tin) three; to (char) four; fa (panj) five; i 
fchhe) six; K3 (sat) seven; ms (ath) eight; ?r (nau) 
nine; £h (das) ten. 

Cardinal numerals do not change with the 
change in the number and gender. 

Possessive adjective 

w makes possessive adjective of the noun or 
pronoun which precedes it. Thus fare sHrissda 
(whose); hu loheda (of iron); w*ft ^— mochida 
•{cobbler's) 

Other Use* 

h# w w (fliuadeda bhra) 
boy's brother 

hto srat (makan di bari) 
house's window 

fen sqth (kissda naukar) 
whose servant 

On the pattern of fan w, we can form posse- 
ssive cases of other 3rd person pronouns §3 (uh), 
§hht (ussda) . feu (eh), fee (essda). 



92 



is a sign of possessive and we know that 
adjectives ending in -a, change in gender and 
number agreeing with the noun possessed. 

Fern. Sing. 

feu <5cf3t V\ *3Wt U 1 

(eh lakri di kursi hai) 
It is a wooden chair 

Fern. PL 

feu huM fern* 55 i 
(eh merian kitaban han) 
these are my books 

feu §h (Ten) ^t>tf , 
(eh uss (iss) dyan dwatan han) 
these arc his inkpots 

Mas. Sing. 

feu HB Hc(i<Stfl S3 U 1 

(eh mere makan di chhat hai) 
this is the roof of my house 

Mas. PL 

feu H§ § SH? T 3 US I 

(eh mere makan de darwaze han) 
these are the doors of my house 



93 



Some Adjectives 



*fe» achchha (good) 
ire saf (clean) 
are 7 ganda (dirty) 
§w uchcha (high) 
t?^cs javan (young) 

chhota (small, short) 
uar hara (green) 
stw kala (black) 
are* gora (white, fair) 
(person) 
faz* chitta (white) 
ste* nila (blue) 
Mfer pila (yellow) 

bhura (brown) 
bto lal (red) 
§ai tang (narrow) 



i& nawa (new) 
ira^ purana (old) 
ste' niva (low) 
3sr f tera (your, yours) 
hs 7 lamba (long, tall) 
He? 7 mera (my, mine) 
ere* kachcha (unripe) 
ifa* pakka (ripe, strong) 
3^ tagra (strong) 

hb 7 maila (dirty) 
ts* bhaira (bad) 
H»aF mara (bad) 

ftftp nikka (small) 
w khula (open) 



Adjectives in oblique form 

oh pichhlay raaheenay tun kam karda hai 
(he has been working since the last month) 

§H^f td^dd »raisf! 3int feu 5 i 
usda daftar agli gali vich hai 
(his office is in the next street) 



94 



eh mere bache da chola hai 
(this is my child's shirt) 

aam admian nu isda pata nahin hai 

(the common people have no knowledge of it) 

chaurian galian vich sarian motran jandian nan 
(in wide streets all motor-cars go) 

pakke makan de age gaan baithi hai 

(a cow is sitting in front of the pacca house) 

sohnian kaprian naal admi changa lagda hai 
(man looks fine with beautiful clothes) 

mazdoor thorian dinan/haftian tun kam karda hai 
(the labourer works (has been working) since 
some days/weeks) 

In these sentences the adjectives in oblique 
form are fuss Huft, »rarsft *f&\] h§ at, »f T BKt»f t , 



95 



LESSON 1 3 



ADVERBS 

Adverbs are those words which qualify the 
verbs. They are preceded by the verb. 



Examples 

1. 3 fog gfder T ? 

3. §n sre t^ar ? 



tun kithe rahenda hain 
(where do you live ? ) 
main ithe nere rahenda 
haan 

(I live here nearby) 
oh kad javega 
(when will he go ?) 
jad gadi milegi tad jawega 
(he will go when he gets 
the train) 



In the above sentences afo^T is qualified by 
(fag); then by fog); w^w by (ore) and (ne). 
These qualifying words are adverbs. 

Other Examples 

1. feu c7Hor »ref* gr^rr ht^ 3 I 

eh kamra androon bahroon saf hay 
(this room is clean inside and outside) 



96 



2. h 4 nfuH f^r afae* r* 3* H3» *h i3l (t?SBt,i33) y 4 ^ tft 
main shahr vich rahinda san tan mera kam 
chheti (jaldi, turat) hunda si 
(when 1 lived in city, I could get my work 
done quickly) 

Ru es 

1. Adverbs precede immediately in transitive 
verbs. 

2. Adverbs of time preceed adverbs of place. 
Example 

3rd ws fsre 3F§ h! ? (tussi kal kithe gaye si) (&e) is 
adverb of time and (fori) adverb of place, (where 
had you gone yesterday ?) 

3. Ordinarily the object precedes the transitive 
verb and the adverb precedes the object- 

Mt? oR5 tFU M?^ TP I 

(assi ajkal chah peenday han) 
(these days we drink tea) 

(tussi hurt ithe aapna saman rakho) 
(now you keep your luggage here) 



97 



Some adverbf 



fe# (ithe) here £§ (nerc) near 

(utfae) therfe (bahroon) from without 

fc$ (kithe) where (androon) from within 
ore (kad) when ? 93I (chheti) at once 
?re (jad) when (rel.) traret (jaldi) at once 
3^ (tad) then 333 (turat) at once 

stf (ajkai) now-a-days 

(a) In English, adverbs are formed by adding 
the suffix (— ly) to the adjective. In Punjabi, such 
formations are achieved by adding the postposi«z 
tion "tfb" to nouns. 

Examples 

fMW Tim fpiyar naal) lovingly 
iht^h sre (aaram naal) comfortably 
tti sto (zor naal) forcibly 

(b) The present participle with — ia ending - 

I had seen the porter carrying luggage 

we had heard them singing 

9* 



In the above two sentences the adverbs end 
in (»n)-§stfe>H% 3P§ i fe>tf i 

(c) As in English, adjectives in Punjabi also 
serve as adverbs 

§u w ts^ T 3 i (oh aukha bolde hai) 

he speak harsh 
mT- #3it feyg ur i (assin changa Itkhda haan) 
we write good 

In these sentences (w) and (^gp) are adjec- 
tives but here they are adverbs qualifying the 
verbs (sn*BT) and (fey£) 

Other Forms of Adverbs 

A. Continuance 

a. Hy^H* §3 uut^ us i 

makhian udd rahiyan han 
(flies are flying) 

or* fetra t? T h(j i 

kan idhar udhar ja rahe honge 

(crows may be going here and there) 

fxs\ fei 1 ihu to! h! i 

billi ithon langh rahi si 

(the cat was passing [from] here) 



99 



totay pinjray vich bolrahe hunde taan 

(If parrots had been speaking in the cage th n) 

b. wd] <Tr3 ys£ 3d i 

assin sari raat khelde rahe 
(we kept playing all night) 

gborri sabh kujh khandi rehndi hay 
(the mare keeps eating everything) 

1. In sentences under "a", the main verb is in 
its root form ##); the adverbi are 

(auW), (bu, fensf §qa) (fef"), (33 n §) and in senten - 
ces under "b", it is in the present participle 
form which is declined with number and gender. 
The adverbs are (hu), (aKrel) 

2 Under "a", the auxiliary verb afa^ is in the 
past participle form which takes tense and person 
with the help of another auxiliary verb os T 

Under "b", afa^ can be conjugated in all 
kns:s and moods. 

Compare the meaning : 
a. §3 w .feu 1 3 oh ja riha hai 
(he is going) 



100 



b. §a tfw aftre* 5 i oh janda rehinda hai 

(he keeps on going) 
§u fl*^ afsfe* Ht oh janda rehinda si 
(he used to go) 

B Habit 

§3 H*i UI3 5IH qT5 Vfw oTBtF Fft I 

oh sade ghar kade kade aaya karda si 

(he used to come off and on to our house) 

3Ffi* SPTPH TO TO r? T fe»T oT3 I 

tussi bazar roz roz jaya karo 

(you should go to the market daily) 

Hi uat H3t fare »rfH»f T otto to i 

munde gharri murri idhar aaya karde san 

(the boys uesd to come this side again and again) 

Bt? MR^ ^fo»P f&3 3nft»f* H»fe»P S?TO Rt I 

tad assin darya vich tariyan layiya karde si 
(then we used to go to river for a swim) 

In me above sentences the main verb is in 
the past participle form, vn^ has trfew not fern 1 i 
And this is not changed with gender or number 

The habitual sense is conveyed by ora?>T (to do) 

ft may be recalled that habit is also expressed 
(past imperfect) as 

101 



tad tusi khuh te nahande si 

(then you used to bathe at the well) 

Continuity of habit is expressed 

main dine-ratin (savere-shami) kam karda rehnda 
han 

(I do work day and night (morning and evening) 

C Necessity 

a. t§ m\ I -e&ti few u^ai i 

tainu dhobi / darzi passoon kapre liyane 
payiange 

(you will have to bring clothes from the 
washerman / tailor) 

mail nu phullan da har banauna painda hay 
(the gardener has to make a garland of 
flowers) 

maan ne bache nu kanghi karni hovegi 
(the mother vvill have to comb the child's 
(hair) 



102 



tni&3\ a #3 35 $H 33»t 5 1 

mistri ne def tak kam karna hai 
(the mechanic has to work late) 

« 

asaan dur japa hai 
(we have to .go far) 

The sense of "have to" is expressed in 
Punjabi by the former being more 

Forceful* 

The main verb is in infinitive form which is 
declined in number and gender, if there is an 
object having no postposition. few£", "*uft 
srasT, "5h etc. In the last sentence, the 

verb is impersonal. 

When "to" is Used, the subject takes 
and thus the sentense is passive in construction. 

When is used, the subject takes oblique 
form with or without "S-»w» [fc] ^sfa* ssta* u?> < 
amma (ne) dwayian lainyan nan (the mother has 
to buy medicine) 

103 



Some Adverbs 



fi there 
(re* then 

then 
fy& thither 

from there, thence 

fvra 4 from upwaras 
§s§ on the other hand 
*fa today 
*ra as yet 
>>feH of course 
wwtr around 
across 
few s^t therefore 
ieR srai therefore 
fOa like this 
fed here 
feua hither 
fe#* like this 
»te casually 
*ra really 



jfei always 

Htt early in the morning 

*toh£ in front 

fare only 

<3wr always 

us W3l every moment 

era fes every day 

03 ^9 every time 

u* yes 

re now 

as just now 

to §* from now 

ds* below 

a£ slowly 

ere when 
whence 

«re ?suT never 

99 tomorrow 

fcrif why 

fan last 

fa§ ^) anywhere 



104 



*?5 to the risht 


few where 


1303 wHlfflM* 


dn nrf IJVp that 
T£n o^' JUiLw iuai> 


2^ inrimpHiiitpIv 
»si JUUiiiwUJaicijr 


V1S5I 39' VCljr WCII 


»'i •si ▼crjr i|uivK.t.j 




yaiT i« nla.ce 


tts below 




w h a iwivv 


tit; wilt 11 


^gO si Way 


vi J* u/lv n 
tit; w h* it 




fit? 33T wheil 


XT Well 


53Z7 5* u/TiAnz^n 
tit? 9 WUCIid. 


I^CU? t/\to 

loMc luidtiy 


~gw V/l vUUlsv 


log' CUliIGljr 






fair where 


<jm aside 


at nnop 
v v ai v/ii^w 


1MB iTwlilllU 


^fer true 


Irai with nut 


then 


w&3 tomorrow 


3§* like 


fm%8 altogether 



Exercise 



Q. I. Identify the adverbs in the following 
sentences ; 

H* fetra ^IB rT^ ut 1 



105 



Ans. (1) fore §rre (idhar udhar-here and there) 

(2) ^ <zor naal— forcefully) 

(3) n!§-^f!§ (gfci-s^-slowly) 

(4) autoi* (rahiyan-continuing) 

( 5) ui^l hs! (gharri-murri-again and again) 

Q. II. Translate into Puniabi and mark xiu 
adverbs . 

I this room is clean from outside 
2- we drink tea nowadays 

3. run quickly 

4. we write well 

Ans. teu oingr ^of* ws 3 i 

(3) S3l «i i 

(e) »mF ^ap fetre i 



106 



LESSON 14 



GENDER 

fe*3T 

There are only two genders in Punjabi, even 
inanimate objects are used either in masculine or 
feminine gender. There are no hard and fast 
rules about distinction of gender in such words. 
As in many European languages, grammatical 
gender is just a matter of convention. Some clear- 
ly distinctive and useful rules are being given 
below -m (masculine), f (feminine) i 

1 . All nouns meaning males are masculine and 
those meaning females are feminine, as ftra* (pita) 
father (m); (mata) mother (f); w (bhara) 
brother (m): (bhain) sister (f); eb (sher) Hon 
(m); Hast (sherni) lioness (f). 

2. Nearly all nouns denoting inanimate objects, 
which eiK* m -a ( T ) are masculine. a& faddw 
(sirhana) pillow; *d*w (darwaza) door; owa* 
(kamra) room; m*p (pakha) fan. 

Some important exceptions are ^ (dawa) 
medicine; as* (bala) misery, istw (duniya) world, 



107 



z& (hawa) air; m* (sabha) assembly; Sep (Lanka) 
ceylon, etc from Sanskrit. 

3. Infinitives ending in -a (na) are masculine 
as nan oth 3" (parhna changa kam hai) 

(to study isi a good work) 
t§ feys> xf'uly 3 (fenu likhna chahida hai) 
(you should write) 

4. Abstract nouns, ending in -av or ao and -ap, 
-rian, -pana -ap are masculine, as 3 r ? (bhav) 

sentiment, m& (lagau) attaenment, fanrcy (sianap) 
wisdom, are all masculine. 

5. Nouns ending in — i are feminine, as .satf 
(kursi) chair, My! (pakh) a small fan, F^ft (chhati ) 
chest. 

Some important exceptions are M^t (pani) 
water, uft (ghee) rectified butter, H3* (moti) pearl 

(dahin) curd is more commonly used in 
-xiasculine than in feminine gender -^uf h w 
(dahi leaa-bring curd) 

6. Abstract nouns ending in ~ 3 1 -i,ai, avat, -at 
-ish are all feminine. 



108 



Examples 



fw333i (mitarta) friendship, fat (tezi) quickness, 
gfar»ret (changiayft goodness, fas^s (milawat) 
mixing, $m (koshish) attempt 

7. The nam^s of languages are feminine, fas 
(urdu), ?al (russi), Russian, (Punjabi) wws\ 
(japani) Japanese, etc. 

8. The real difficulty is about words ending in 
consonants, and there only practice and experien- 
ce will help. 

9. Pronouns, adjectives and (excepting roots) 
ending in -a are masculine, those ending in — i 
are feminine, and those ending in a consonant or 
any other vowel have no gender. 

Examples 

Mas 

fausp (kehra) which one, »tm^ (aapna) own, 
(changa) good, ofty (keeta) did, rft&Qanda) going 

Fern. 

fsrast (kehri) which one, »TM^t (apni) own, sraft 
(changi) good, srtet (keeti) did, (jandi) going 



109 



Com. 

h* (main) I, §a (oh) that, *T3te (garib) poor, sra 
(kare) he/she may do, ore (kar) do 

10, The gender of nouns is clearfy indicated by 
the pronouns, adjectives and adverbs. 

ITjiMH|pl>i 

firon! h* faft *fi §a as MS* 3 i 

jehri main mangi si oh cheez lebh payee hai 

(the thing I had asked for has b?en obtained (fern) 

niki kitab barri aukhi hai 

(the small book is very difficult) (fern) 

fear era* r*i it*©* rtf t 

ik kata sap janda see 

(a black snake was going) (mas) 

•fst(f) (chhutti) holiday, leave; *m (baal) 
child; rosft (f) (saheli) friend; w (e?»Ht) (0 
(dawa, dawai) medicine; a*rs (bukhar) fever 

Formation of Feminine* 

a. The principle feminine suffixes in Hindi are 
-i, -ni, am, -ri. And of these the most common 
is -i. If a masculine noun ends in a consonant,— i 



110 



is added, and if it end in -a, -i is substituted for 
that final -a. 

Examples 

1. (chacha) uncle, 3^ (chachi) aunt 

2. (gh ;»ra) horse, wtel (ghori) mare. 

3. ifc* (pakha) fan, utf (pakhi) small faa. 

4. fa (sota) baton, H?t (soti) stick. 

b. Masculine -a in pronouns, adjectives and 
verbs invariably changes into -i as in 

lm ) *3 ftwte* 3 (khat likheeda hai) - (0 fast 
fB«tefl 5 (chithi likheedi hai) a letter is written. 

fassp War §h § f jehra avega us nu das- 
anga) I shall tell him who will come 
frost wart §h $ (f) (jehri avegi us nu 
dasangi) . In English there is no such distinction* 

c Masculine nouns denoting certain classes, 
usually add ~ni in feminine as ( santani) a 
female saint, H«ust (sadhni) a female sadhu. fiwst 
(sikhni) a sikh woman, 7>zz\ (natni) a female jugg- 
ler, afte^t (bhilni) a bhil woman. 

Names of certain female animals and birds 
also take — ni as §5^t (uthni ) r. si camel, W3#t 



ill 



(morni) a peahen, twddl (chakorni) female of a 
chakorbird, rasi (soorni) she- pig, foe^t (richchni) 
she bear. 

d. There are certain classes of people, the femi- 
nine nouns of which add -(ani) to masculine forms 
as f*!d'<i) (dirani) wife of the husband s younger 
brother (from ^fe); fas^l (jithani) wife of the 
husband's elder brother (from as); fuewl 
(hiduani) a Hindu woman. 

The number of such formations is quite 
limited. 

e. The use of (ri) suffix is still less common, h 
occurs in s^sl (balrin girl, HHsral fsandukri) a 
small box, and *&oi3\ (bulakri) a small nose-ring 

f. Masculine nouns denoting 'residents of or 
* professionals' and ending in (i) or (ia) get that 
ending replaced by (an) in feminine gjnder as : 
t?»rg^ (duabia) a male resident of the Doab; 
t?»ra£ (duaban) a female resident of Doab, fae^f* 
(pishawria) a resident of Peshawar, ftrcras (pisho- 
ran— fern), M^relw (paharia-mas) a resident of a 
hill, i-o^s (paharan-fem), wzft (mali-mas) gardener, 
H's^ (malan-fem) 



112 



g. Some masculine nouns do not form feminines 
with suffixes but have different words in feminine 
gender - (bhara) brother; is (bhain) sister; 
4 33 (putar) son; §3 (nunh) daughter-in-law. 



grj (bapu) father 
fM3 T (pita) father 

(ma/ad) man 
u 33 (putr) son 
hV (munda) boy 

(raja ) king 
toI (sali) wife's sister 

hwu (badshah ) king 



(maan) mother 
ht3t (naata) mother 
srerot (zanani) woman 
tft (dhee) daughter 

(kurri) girl 
3^1 (rani) queen 
fpot (sala) wife's 

brother 
HH«r (malka) quetn 



113 



LESSON 1 5 



POSTPOSITIONS 

Postpositions are those words which follow 
nouns or pronouns. All postpositions must follow 
an oblique form of the noun or pronoun they 
govern. Some of the postpositions are 

§ Cto), 3" (from), § (on) 

Examples 

1. ^ § M^t H I 

(ghorre nun pani de) 
give water to the horse 

(main kis nun chakoo marda haan) 
who do I stab with knife 

3. s€ 3 L ?? \ 
(bache ton chaku na lao) 

don't take the knife from the child 

4. ^cTRt "3 TP HZ> I 

(kursi te na baith) 
don't sit on the chair 

Postpositions do not change with the change 
in the gender or number of the noun or pronoun 



114 



Examples 



Thus we get h § §, wfe»n §, $, § i 
Other Postpositions 

^H*, SHt, STH* 



(naal) with as in 
bto' (naalun) from as in 
HHt (laye) for as 'in 

(vich) in 
sjH (kol) near 
fs* (kolon) from near 



as in 
»» 



7ZE (with knife) 
sat 73T8 (with knife) 
h§ net (for me) 
§to fes (in it) 
mi (near Ram) 
ymzB $b (from near 



master) 



1. ^ ??& a* 1 

main chaku nal vadhda han 
(I cut with a knife) 

2. irF fen snt ug§ u ? 

tussi kiss laye puchhde ho 
(what do you ask for ?) 

3. h§ gut 3? s§ 1 

mere kolon chhuri na lau 

(do not take the knife from me) 



115 



chamach usde kol rakh 

(keep the spoon near him (her) 

Not The full form of postposition is bto'', 
<ror", W, ^h", "# but in practice 
is sometimes omitted for the sake of economy 
and this form is getting more popular. 

You know that the 1st person possessive 
case is na*, mine (not w 

In pi. w becomes w& (our), and <?' 
becomes and even lU'sr, your, yours. 



£ §M3 (§ w §) (above), £ 3b (below). % 
(ahead), § fui (after), 3 fui 1 (huht) (after), £ 
(in front of). ^ (inside), 3 wub (out- 
side), h S3 (near) 



More Postpositions 



Pronunciation 



(talay) 
§ 3 (uttay) 



fph^ ( samne) 
>hhh (andar) 
5^13 (bahar) 
(naire) 



K^t, fMi* fmagrun pichhun) 



§mh (uppar) 



»rar (agay) 
fws (pichhe) 



116 



These postpositions (without S) can also be 
used as adverbs : 

Postposition : 

1. h§ fui TP >X T §5 T I 
mere pichhe na auna 
don't come behind me 

2. owi % >>rea / WUB oft 5 ? 
kamre de andar / bahar kihai 
what is there inside / outside 

3. H3 § §mu (§"§) w I 

mez de uppar (utay) rakh 
put (it) on the table 

4. §3«o ? 3 t 

oh ghar de samne baithda hai 
he sits in front of the house 

main kamrian de neray kursian rakhda haan 
I keep chairs near the rooms 

Use as Adverb : 

1. ftf§ pichhe hut (move/get behind) 

2. >fc?H/s T U3 w ander/bahar ja (go inside/outside) 

3. §mh w uppar ja (go up) 



117 



4. fph5 samne khalo (stand in front) 

5. w neray aa (come near) 

Special use of some post-positions 

You know that z (by) § (to) r (from) ^ (of) 
§ (on) and partially ?pb (with) are postpositions. 
The meaning of adverbial postpositions on the 
other hand, is almost fixed. It is desired here to 
detail some important significance of the simple 
postpositions. 

[ * nai (by) ] 

The use of s is not very significant in Punjabi. 
It is attached to the subject of a transitive verb 
when it is used in the past (participle) form excep- 
ting (liana) to bring, shs* (darna) to fear, 
which are, in fact, intransitive in Punjabi. 

3 is not commonly used with h (I), 3 (you), 
(we), itf (you). It is optional with third 

person pronoun, and compulsory with »pm, 

respectful you. 

US 



[ S - 



£ is used with 
Animate object as 

main dooon mundiyan nu aakhda san 
I was telling both the boys 

3 § H^t I 

tun ghore nun chabak mari si 
you had whipped the horse 

Object of a verb requiring some predicative 
word. 

oh munde nu shararti samajhda hai 
he considers the boy to be noughty 

main rishwatkhori nun pap manda han 
I take bribing as a sin 

Object of a verb in impersonal construction : 

nathu ne munde nu maria see 
nathu had beaten the boy 



119 



d. Object in apposition s 

oh aapne putar nun daktar banavvega 
he will make his son a doctor 

e. Time of action : 

H* <F3 § tl'diy fell 1 I 

main raat nun jagda riha 

I kept awake at night 

i 

assin panj tarik nun a^. javange 
we shall come on the 5 th 

^nt (at night) entf (in the evening), can also 
be used in place of W3 §, aw § i 

f. Dative (usually animate) • 
H 7 J fe»top i 

maan nu phul dianga 

I will give the mother flowers 

W § § fas! Mt §3fT , 

munde nu chitthi pa dena 
send a letter to the boy 

g. Logical subject of certain verbs, such as 
sarc* (to be felt), re* (to be), »ffe (to be felt), 



120 



U2 T (to be compelled), fks^ (to be obtained, to be 
met), »ffao?TH u2f (to have the right), M3 T (to 
have knowledge), ttfe* (should) 

Examples 

ht> f y 9, mainu bhukh laggi hai 
(I feel hungry) 

h§ a^r >tfy 6fe>HT, mainu barra aukh hoya 
(I had a great difficulty) 

§u§ s^l R3H »fHt, uhnu barri shaim aayi 
(he felt awful shame) 

ssre § fy>HT j naukar nun kadhna piya 

(the servent had to be turned out) 

h§ iM^t§ fns 3i§ us, mainu rupaye mil gaye han 
(I have received the rupees) 

3$ ^j'Jly u ti, tainu chahida hai ju 
(it is desired of you) 

sn; § fen ara ^ m^t u, bapu nun iss gal da pata hai 

(the father knows it) 

h. With predicative infinitives showing purpose : 

§u § few u, oh jan nun tiyar hai 
(he is ready to go) 

121 



(i) In certain other constructions : 

if ?tPHt»F, tainu vadhayan 

(congratulations to you) 

jto cfi [mh! u] ? sanu ki (paye hai) ? 

(it does not concern us) 

^ (§0 
f 4 is used to denote : 

a. Subject cf a verb in passive voice : 

h*t feu £h ?Kjf uV i 

maithun eh kam nahin hunda 
(this job cannot be done by me) 

b. Place from : 

bazar ghar thon kini dur hai ? 

(how far is the market from the house ?) 

c. Time from : 

h 4 o(E §* cfr-f hh sra f^fap t 

main kal tun kam shuru kar diyanga 

(I shall start work from tomorrow) 

d. Duration (for, since) : 
#0 W3 fe?> glHTH U I 

oh char dinthon bimar hai 
(he has been ill for four days) 



122 



H 1 H d l Msj ' d f 4 SUt *P for I 

main manglwar thon kujh nahin kha riha 
(I have been eating nothing since Tuesday) 

e. Difference and comparison : 

feu i^ft? §H U I 

eh radio us thon changa hai 
(this radio-set is bettsr than that) 

f. Relationship with certain verbs as us^ 1 (to 
ask), ware* (to beg), *%?p (to escape), (to 
fear) 

main uss thun puchchya 
(I asked him) 

>tfa oTC5 q v M 3 4 WUfe 5 | 

ajkal dhup ton bachna chahida hai 

(these days one should save oneself from heat) 

oh kisay thon nahin darda 
(he fears nobody) 

l>] 

^ denotes any of the following relations 

between a noun/pronoun and another noun 
which follows "sr" 



123 



Examples 

a. Possession and ownership : 

§r^t ujg (his house), ?fo ^ wz\ (Natluf s watch) 
h"§ (boy's brother), fsrH ^ sara (whose 

servant) 

b Kinship : 

fHUJ F / S'3 T / HHP I 

Ram Singh da bhra / chacha / mama 
(Ram Singh's brother/uncle/maternal uncle 

KirpaFs/Sadhu Singrfs/Baldev's wife/mother 

c. Material or composition (adjectival) 
sd & ahu t lohe de jandra (iron lock) 

13I lakridi kursi (wooden chair) 

d. Use or purpose (for) : 

Mte h t (drinking water) 
w*T ^1 (table cover) 

e. Source (from) : 

yu/£# *p (well-water, pipe- water) 
uas ?1 u? T (eastern wind) 

f Price - 

is hmsIw ^\ (two rupees sugar) 



124 



g. Doer of . 

saitf ^ (tailor's work) 
^tra fe'w (writer's book) 

h. Objectives : 

srfew ^1 m^I (children's education) 
3§ ^1 H3 (dog's (wretched, death) 

i. Part of whole : 

uh til §arcft (foot-finger, toe) 
fsreTs ^ irar (page of the book) 

j. Time ; 

m t h ^1 13 (winrter-season) 

k Age : 

tFH ?3 ^ (4-year-old boy) 

1. Characteristic : 

h* ^ hh3t (mother's affection) 

h§ ■5 T iHTvis (innocence of the child) 

m. Totality : 

(whw (all the five) 

^ grg (flocks after flocks) 

n. In some adjectival phrases : 
3* fiV (rakh da sucha) honest 

125 



Other Uses 
3 (te) 

3" ( on), denotes : 

(i) The place where (on upon) : 

oh zimi te battha si 

he was sitting on the ground 

H i BTHJtf § gs few i 

main kursi te baith gaya 

I sat down in the chair 

ii. The time at which : 

ms\ : # m fife § »pQ^\ 5 i 

gaddi : das vajke panj mint te aundi hai 

the train arrives at five minutes past ten 

main vakat te pahunch gaya 
I reached in time 

iii. imminence : 

diwar dehn te hai 

the wall is about to collapse 



126 



iv. Sequence of action : 

mere jaan te on jag piya 

he woke up when I reached there 

v. Relationship with certain verbs : 
TofBM 1 (kirpa karna) to be kind to 
tesrg sres* (itbar karna) to believe 
esf (shak hona) to doubt 

(taras khanna) to take pity 

Examples 

sade te kirpa karni 
be kind te us 

§§ 3 feHSPcF <SUt* Hfe few 1 

tere te koi itbar nahin rah giya 
no faith is left in you 

tere kiss te shak hai 
who do you doubt ? 

grate* § «?sh yr§ i 
gariban te taras khau 
have pity on the poor 



127 



f&a (vich) 
%e (inside) is used for denoting ; 
Place in which ; 

lahaur vich ik hakim rahinda see 
a physician lived in Lalhore 

Time in which : 
§h ip f%X uss jug vich 
(in that age) 

»fe* fife* f£%, athaan mintan vich 

(in eight minutes' time) 

Price at which ; 

juti kine rupiyan vich milegi 
what will the cost ? 

Age at which ; 
fetf §M3 f?B, iss umar vich 
(at this age) 

Action in which : 

MoP3 f^B cRfi I 

vohti pakan vich lagi rahi 
the wife kept busy in cooking 



128 



vi. State in which : 

fsrHfgt f?% iter sb-r feare few i 

bimari vich ee mera kam viggar giya 

my work was spoilt during my illness 

vii. Comparison ; 

eh kurri sariyan vichon sohni hai 
this girl is most beautiful of all 

sro (naal) 

?ra (with) is used to denote 

i. Instrument : 

us 7pe hath naal khaa 
(eat with hand) 

ii. Cause : 

TPS W7> M?t focfSHi 5 I 

bhukh naal jan paye nikaldi hai 

life is being lost on account of hunger — 

feeling terribly hungry 

iii. Manner : 

feu HTHST 3cT HHS H I 

eh mamla achhi tarah naal samajh lai 
understand this matter properly 



129 



iv. Companionship : 

samu chache de naal ja riha si 
Shamu was going with his uncle 

v. Proximity : 

mez de naal ae kursi payee hai 
just near the table is lying a chair 

vi. Along : 

diwar de naal naal chale ja 
go along the wall 

Verbs afe* crasr, to talk; hhst sra?> r , to treat; 
33^, to tie; to, marry; fwa to love; 

335% to join; fiw^, to combine; Compare :^ 

main uhde naal do ghante gal lan karde riha 
I kept talking with him for two hours 

cP7 w f%»n5 H^ng tfs era i 
radho da viyah loohar naal kar ditta 
Radho was married to the blacksmith 



130 



HUT §u£ 31H fiw^ U f3PH» I 

mera uhde naal piyar ho giya 
I fell in love with her 

kagaz lavy naal jor lao 
glue the paper with paste • 

feu U^T §H (TO frw zj #y I 

eh rang uss naal mila ke vekho 

see after mixing this colour with that 

Note that 'For' is expressed in Punjabi by 

i. SHt — h§ sh} oft fenr§gr ? 
mere layee ki liyaoge 
what will you bring for me ? 

ii. & (§')- §3 fass ^ ^ 3* ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 

oh pichhle char dina tun kujh nahin kha riha 
he has been eating nothing for the last four 
days 

tussan iss hirni da kina mul bhariya 
what did you pay for this she-deer ? 

iv. U HTfo'H*- §U HUH § HTfw 1 M Ufa fUW I 

oh sharm de mariya chup rahi giya 
he kept silent for shame 



131 



rni isft fifeft ?cf m§ i 
sade beli dilli val tur gaye 
our companions have left for Delhi 

kitab di thaan te mere kolon kapi lailai 
take a copybook for your book 

— h* feu w 3fa ?Met>HT f^g ugfei u i 
main eh gaan teeh rupayan vich kharidi hai 
I have bought this cow for thirty rupees 



132 



LESSON 1 6 



MOOD 

The different modes or manners in which a 
verb may be used to express an action are called 
moods. There are several moods. First we discuss 
the subjunctive mood. 

Subjunctive mood is used to express a wish 
or desiri or a purpose or a condition or supposition 

Examples 

Singular 

1. h 4 orat, I may do; if I do 

2. 1 fotr\ you may write, if you write 

3. §u 33, he/she may break 

if he/she may break 

Plural 

1. wft 4 M^t§, we may read, if we read 

2. 3hF you may listen, if you listen 

3. §3 tren*, they may get up, if they get up 

1. Here we do not have a participle form. There 
is no change with gender. 

2. But the form is inflected in number and 
person 



133 



3. Different meaningful terminations may be noted 

This form has a sense of futurity, and it can 
also be called 'optative', as it expresses desire, 
requirement or purpose, besides condition 

There is a ^ glide after the root ending in a 
vowel, as in (he may eat), (you may sleep) 
(I may drink) 

Among the tenses or moods in Punjabi, this 
is the only one in which a verb takes six varied 
forms. 

Other Examples 

Subjunctive : (may be) 

Singular Plural 

1st per h* wfr 

2nd per b ut 4 3r1 at i 

3rd per §3 ui §a u^s i 

Future wil» be : 

Sing, add-ar for masc. -aft for fern. 
PL add for masc: -arto* for fern. 

Compare : 

w* #s (I am seated) 
m* §3T h» (I was sitting) 



134 



H l W (if I be sitting) 
h 1 i3T (I will be sitting) 

vr gsr u ^ (if I were sitting) 

is as good an abjective as ( fat); 
(thin); wvr (simple); swte* (mean); etc., so for 
as function is concerned. 

Use in Sentences 

je uh darda tan fal na khanda 

if he had feared, he would not have eaten fruit 

tussin dukan te kiun jande ho ? 

why do you go to the shop ? - (purpose) 

darwaz band na karo 4 koi aunda hovega 

do not shut the door, somebody may be coming 

- (supposition) 

H i feu £h srael «f^t 3* 93n qV i 
mein eh kam kardi hundi tan changa hunda 
if I had been doing this work, then it would have 
been good - (condition) 

135 



H"§ ofi M'(* TT5 1 — mW, ofHfa, iffi^ tf3l I 

munde ki pande han - kapra, kameez, pajama, 
kot, juti 

what do boys wear ? - dress, shirt, pyjama, coat, 
shoe 

kuriyan kt pandiyan san ? sal war, dhoti, sari, 
dupatta, chuni 

what do girls wear ? - trousers, dhoti, saree, scarf 
small scarf 

koi mazdoor janda howe taan mainu dasna 
if some labourer passes tell me 

1 . The present participle also functions as past 
conditional. It is extended by the auxiliary. 

"us 1 " is conjugated according to person and 
number. The English (to have) and (to be) both 
mean "as 7 " in Punjabi. 

2. In conditional mood, the Punjabi form in 
both subordinate and the principal clause is the 
same. Cf. English had would. 

3. The participle form changes with number and 
gender. 



136 



LESSON 17 
DEGREES OF COMPARISONS 

In Punjabi there are several words which 
express ths degree of comparison. For instance 
?rer, 3\ w etc. 

The following are the examples of how these 
are used in making sentences. 

a. feu cf3* §r 5§ ?rer ^ar a ' 
(this dog is better than that) 

(the degree of comparison in this sentence 
can be expressed in some other words also. 

feu §r §* ot 3 or feu ^ §h *r u or 

feU 33 T §H STH U I 

b. feU UU ftPH^r / oTH 7 / ^ U i 

(eh hor ziada changa/kala/vada hai) 

it is still more good/black/big (better, blacker 

bigger) 

From the above sentences we see that the 
words ivw, 3% s% uu fawv express comparison 
between two similar things. 

Other Sentences 

?&t Hifu»T ?> T H i (f%s\ 3% w, i& u I 
(Natha is worst of all) 

137 



rite* Ssfrx 1 (TO 4 M 3 i 
(Shila is best of all girls) 

From the above examples follow the rules 

that 

1 . The adjective itself (3ar, zw, f does 
not undergo any change for degrees of compari- 
son. The comparative is expressed by §\ s 4 , 
^ff* which means 'than*. 

2. The superlative is expressed by wffrtf (mas), 
rrelw (fem) all pth* (3\ 3*, as compared with, 
or fef 4 (out of) 

3. In "b" the formation is just like 'more 
beautiful', where the adjective in positive degree 
is made comparative by the addition of 'more' 
-33- in Punjabi. 

4. Like the comparative - "er" in English- 
larger, better, etc-we have some cases of— era in 
sanr (changera) better from, H3F (changa), His* 
(lambera) longer, taller; (chhatera) smaller; 
from 32* (chhota); §§3* (uchera) higher, from 

(ucha) 

Even befofe these, 3 4 or is used for 'than 



138 



5. The superlative is also expressed by the 
repetition of the adjective with 3* in between, 
as arete 3* arete (jgarib tun garib) the poorest of 
the poor; i* Meter (amir tun amir) the richest. 

6. Mere repetition of adjectives and adverbs 
denotes comparison with self : 

m ws (thale thale) lower still, adv. 

(changa changa) good in the lot 
^ (vada vada) still bigger 

Exercises 

Q. Fill in the blank with words showing com- 
parison in the following sentences : 

3. grate arete »pbh} ¥H 3 i 

a. feu ^ u^r 3* ste I 

AnS. 1. 3. §§HT 3. 3 4 8. U3 fa*^ M. n? 3* 



139 



LESSON 1 8 
NUMBER 

Singular- Plural 

Singular 

a. feu ftr^ n (this is a book) 
§n crertf n (that is a chair) 
fen c^t n (this is a girl) 
fen w* u (this is mother) 

Plural 

a. fen fsra^ (ns) (these are books) 
§u 3Hftf»ft (g^) (those are chairs) 
fen fte (ns) (these are girls) 
fen h^t *te (ns) (these are mothers) 

Singular 

b, fen 3W n (this is a post office) 
fen Hern n (this is a house) 

§n ssre n (that is a servant^ 
§n n (that is a saint) 
fen »re># n (this is a man) 

Plural 

b. fen n?> (ns) (these are post offices) 



140 



fea Hsrs 5s (us) (these are houses) 
§3 sau 5s (us) (those are servants) 
§a ft* 5s (as) (those (they) are saints) 
fea »phh! 5s (as) (these are men) 

1. The Punjabi language has only two genders- 
masculine and feminine. 

2. Uote that the pronouns fea (this, it, he, she) 
and §u (that, it, he, she) do not change in gender 
and number. 

3. 5s (are) is more common than as which is 
rather pedantic, 

4. Under A above we have feminine nouns and 
their forms, and under B above, masculine nouns 
and their forms. The following rules may be 
noted. 

Feminine 

Sing, ending in— a 

PI. add - va 

>p - h^* 

Others add -a in pi. 



141 



Masculine 

Sing, ending in - a 

PI. change -a to -e 

Others no change 

To elaborate the rules we may give some 
examples again : 

1. Singular (feminine) ending in the vowel (»f, T ) 
change into in plural. Example ; h* (h*^*) 
But in such cases verb also changes, "h* 3" 
becomes "h^* us" 

2. Singular masculines end in (m, *) change into 
(" ) in their plural form. Example : 

(h §), ^ T (^§) 

3. Singular feminine ending in ( 1 ) changes into 
(w), Examples : ^ (w&rt), ^ft (^W), cret (cre^tf) 
The verb also changes. 

4. Singular masculines ending in ( 1 ). or (. ) do 
not change. Only their verbs change. Examples : 
nn^wl u (wnt us), fph u (epxj us) 

142 



5. Singular masculines not ending in vowels do 
not change except in the form of their verbs. 
Examples : 3 (ssa 

6. Singular neutrals ending in vowels ( T ) 
change* Examples : raws' 5(3^ 5s). Their 
verbs also change. More examples : tdd^«H T 5 
(^ra 3s ) ; M^m 5 (M*rw 3 s) 

7. Singular neutrals ending in vowel ( T ) change 
into (V). Examples : <*ari (^hrM)* fet (fasto*) 

S. Singular neutrals without vowel endings do 
not change except in the form of their verbs. 
Examples : Hsrs 5 (Heps 3s). There are many excep- 
tions to this rule. Example : few (fey^) 

Some masculine nouns do not change in 
number, but their plurality is known from 'e' in 
pronouns, adjectives and verbs. 

Example 

Hit v»t d§ os \ 

S3 

(mere chite boot dhote hoe ha a) 
my white shoes are washed 

Other Examples 

m) (parents); s*st (mother's parents); R3i 



143 



(wife's or husband's perents); or ?fofi (people) 
are only masculine plural 

¥3t (brother); »F3HT (soul); (father); 
^fe»p (river) do not change for plural number. 

Feminine nouns, pronouns, adjectives and 
verbs take - a to form plural number, as iMw 
(mares); n*E\»p (sisters - in - law); gstw (sitting) 
3i£t»fT (went) 

Some feminine nouns end in -a. They take a 
glide before the plural termination as : 
(winds); (medicines); (desires), Another 
plural form of such words has - i termination, 
as in u^sf, etc. 

If the final vowel of a feminine noun is 
nasalized, it is denasalized and then a is appen- 
ded, as : h* (mother), vre* (mothers), an (cow) 
annf (cows) 

Respectful terms, expressed with h1>to (shri- 
man) before name or designation), and ffl (ji), 
ifef (horin); H^ra (sahib), rcncra (maharaj) etc. 
after a name, relation or designation, or even 
unexpressed adjectives and verbs are in plural. 



144 



Examples 



RT§ f*-!3 T Hi olfu§' U*3 H5 I 



sadde pitaji kahende hunde san 
(our father used t& say) 

ehro fRUf ^£ 3TS US I 

shriman Sher Singh chale gaye hari 
(Mr. Sher Singh has gone) 

WW I tfo T ttf / UUf #3T »TCHl TO I 

chacha/Khanna ji/ Mori bare change aadmi san 
(Uncle/ Mr. Khanna was a good man) 

Authors, editors and officers commonly use 
plural in first person, as 

assan eh kitab likhi hai 
(I have written this book) 

assin aj daftar nahin avange 

(I shall not come to office today) 



Some Numbers 



Singular 

HW 



Plural 
g§ (m) 
gfw (f) 



145 



Singular 



Pfaial 



0JO r 




flgf 








n n 








unit 




Fuul 




w or 


WOl**!* 




raw v*> 


aw • 

IT" 

H 




—J 

o 






« w 






tdrmjT 


UZ7TU 
Hn'n 






















§3 (uth) 


§5 (utho) get up 


zs (baith) 


$3* (baitho) sit 



146 



Singular 



Plural 



vra (parh) 


Mt(parho) read 


(cnal) 


(chalp) go 


i? 1 (\sl) 


tn§ Hao) go 


»r (aa) 


»p§ (aao) come 


fey (likh) 


few (likho) write . 


3 (de) 


3§ (deo) give 


(kar) 


3f (karo) do 






3* at 4 












oTKM 


ofSH* 




3H<£ld* 
















U'ri'd' 














0* 






Ht? 







147 



Exercise 



Q. Correct the numbers in the following 
sentences : 

<*. w& ?ft offev u 4 ^ e1 1 

3. Wit »ftl 3Ut >HT^fgir 

8. feu swfof* § i 

AnS. 3. HT3 fM3f tfl Sffu3 U_"§ TO I 

8. feu ^M»f* US (US) 
M. feU U?> (US) 



149 



LESSON 19 



OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH - I 



Imperative (command) 



Sing. ^ 38 you go, or *b go 
PI. zjfir you go> or to go 

1. 3", like 'thou' in English is a familiar form. 
Foreigners should avoid this form. 

2. The plural form [hrF] is used for singular 
as well as plural, exactly as in English. 3Ht* is 
honorific and plural. 

3. is, in fact, the root fotfm whidh is used as 
imperative 2nd person singular. Here^ too, 
Punjabi and English treatment is similar. 

4. Note that we can us&*ho verb without the 
pronoun in imperative mood, as in English. The 
pronoun is used for emphasis^ 



Some imperativae- 



Singular 
get up 

ife sit 



Plural 



38 go 

re** 



149 



w go 
»p come 
ftw write 



give 

oT3 do 



fey 
era 



5. The infinitive often serves the purpose of the 
imperative. 

Examples 

hhF urt tre% tusi ghar jana 
(you go home) 

«ra Irss 1 , ghar baithna 

(sit in the house) 

s» w& 9 skool na jaana 

(do not go to school) 



[ ^" ] »ra to i [ 3Hf ]»ra^i 

[ 3 ] §3 I 

Remember that verb in a Punjabi sentence 
comes at the end. 

The negative is expressed by & put before 



Other Examples 



150 



the verb is i But for emphasis suf is used 
after the verb - w§ sat, do not go 

Infinitiv* 

few? 3w 1 1 
likhna changa kam hai 
(to write is good) 

ghar jana achba hai 
(it is good to go home) 

£h eras* a i 

kam karna saukha hai 

(to do work is easy) 

kitab na parhna changa kam nahin hai 
(not to read a book is not good) 

(n these sentences "fey^", "a^", "33s'" 
"m^" become infinitive with the addition of "5 T " 
to the root. 

1. Root plus - is the infinitive form. In die* 
tionaries verbs are given in their infinitive form, 
ana we can say that root is obtained by elimina- 
ting at the end. 



151 



2. If the root ends in - - 3 - 3, the infini- 
tive termination is - This is phonetically more 
convenient. Thus M35 T (to read), sres* (to do), 
h^3t (to hear). 

3. The verbal phrase with Mnitive follows the 
ordinary rule of keeping the verb (i.e. the infini- 
tive) at the end. 

Compare : 

Eng - to go home 

Punj. — UJ3 rlT^T i 

Eng - to do a good work 

Punj. - i§3P oTH oT37P | 

5. The place of (not) is the same as in 
English. 

Interjections 

Here is a list of interjections. They form 
sentences by themselves. 

§§, f (uooae, ve) (masc): at (ni) (fem); t# 
(ji) (respectful) - o, for addressing. 

w& (aaha) (vah bhai vah) (praise 

be yours) joy, §et (uee) (pain) 

3i§, §a, »ro (gaye, uh, aah) (regret) 
152 



(achcha) approval 
w&era (kbabardar) beware; $8 (balay 
balay) brave; z& sra (sayeen bhala karo) may 
God do you good; tft§^ (jeonda rahu) may 
you live; §H3 ! (vaddi umar) may you live long; 

d (hay rabba) O God; d vfzw (hay datya) 
O God; tffew (moiya) dead; fire efew (sir sarya) 
quite useless; tft (suno ji) please listen ! gun 
nfef (bahut achha) very well. 

Conjunctions 

Conjunctions join together two sentences. 
There is nothing peculiar about Punjabi conjunc- 
tion. You need only to have a practical list. 

1 . tre* §/>*§ u§ m§ us (roots and leaves are lying) 
In this sentence *is\ and ui (roots and leaves) are 
joined together with words § (te)oratay (»f§). 
Thus this sentence can have these conjunctions. 
Any one of them can be used to express the 
complete meaning. 

Other Examples 

nihala sotti liyaya te daang morr diti 
(Nihala brought a stick and returned the 
bigger one) 

153 



main uhnumaaf kar dainda paruh maafi tan 
mangda 

(I would have excused him but he should 
have just asked for pardon) 

moti nalay larda hai nale ronda hai 
(Moti quarrels as also weeps) 

4. H^ 1 UV 3 fa / tP HHitf ? 

mor sohna hunda hai keh/jan morni ? 
(Is peacock beautiful or peahen ?) 

5. sresti ^ja Tjuf, ?rar 3i ?h 

sadda kalaj door nahin, sagoon nairay hi hai 
(our college is not far off, rather it is quite 
near) 

6 §n a f3i»p fA, fen set (crasr. §us few 

oh pas ho giya si is laye/karke/vaste uhnu 
inam milega 

(He had passed, therefore he will get a prize) 

In the above sentences fa, w, m\ fea *jet, sras 
are conjunctions. 



154 



Conjunctions are used to make compound and 
complex sentences as in English. 



Words without coordinating conjunction are 
very o mmonly used in Punjabi. 

fitfsr (nike vade) 

the small (and) the big ones 

(munde kuriyan) 
boys (and) girls 

>>re3 (andar bahar) 

inside (and) outside 

The Object 

i oft u ?, tun ki khanda hai 
(what do you eat ?) 

A i €<3 u% main roti khanda han 

(I eat bread) 
§u oft sra^T % 9 0 h ki karda hai 

(what does he do ?) 

§3 s 1 ^ u, oh cheezan lainda hai 
(he takes articles) 

vada daktar men ungli dekhda hai 
(the senior doctor examines my finger) 



155 



In the above sentences words "aY\ "azT, 
etc are objects. 



The general principle in Punjabi is that verb 
comes at the end of a sentence. It must, therefore, 
mean that the object must come before the verb 
unlike in Englieh. Examples s u^", "*tar h^" 
<, § t arefi3u*»" etc. 

Some Verbs with Objects 

o(Z& tO CUt (3H ofH^r) SB fruit 

flower 

to sell (TOtrt rraat vegetable 

to catch shst) ^st banana 
hst to give (»rera h^) pomegranate 
^ dltjd 1 to buy (»f*8TB trate^) Mara grapes 
tre* to eat (»n^ »rs 

Also compare Punjabi and English structure 

in : 

(mawan kam kardiyan han) 
mothers do work 

&3 oft ofdti' 5 ? 

oh ki karda hai 
(what does he do ?) 



156 



wat tog d i 
meri kitab de 
(give my book) 

tussin kitab parho 
(you, read the book) 

oh kaun hai 

(he who is) who is he ? 

oh teechar hai 

(he teacher is) hs is a teacher 

oh mera bhai hai 
(he is my brother) 

The reply to §n <?s a ? can be simply "sfaa" 
or 'ifa* so ste of the question is just replaced 
by the name of the person. 

§u $z us ? who are they ? 

£a w as i they are my sisters* 



157 



LESSON 20 



OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH-1I 

Use of isn't it, much, many etc. 

It, There 

7? eft d i what is your name ? 
oft ?? u ? what is your name ? 
HHT^T/iur oft o/h ? how do you do ? 
Tm - condition 

of] »fH S2l 3 ? Is it a holiday today ? 
fei oth! u ? Is there any hotel here ? 

'It' and 'there 4 are not rendered in Punjabi, 
as they are redundant. 

wi$\ wr> faxra giHl ? 

which side did our ball go ? 

h 3* ufew H foT cf^t ? 

has she begotten a son or a daughter ? 

§3 feg si o i u ? 
he is here, is he ? 
WT HtfTU 3* ^ u ? 

today of course, fever is not there. Is it ? 

o72 SfM^T >HgT U ? 

is the coat-cloth good ? 



158 



Isn't it 



§3 fei 3 i a* [fa] ff 1 ? 

oh ithe ee hai, hai (ki) na ? 

he is here. Isn't it ? 

tere kapde tan naven han, hain na ? 

(your clothes are, of course, new. Are't they ?) 

tainu Punjabi bolni nahin aundi, hai na ? 
(you cannot speak Punjabi. Can you ?) 

main der nal aya san, hain na ? 
(I had come late. Didn't I) 

fe* H<J u?> i Reply us 3* eul i 
chirya-ghar vich do sher hain, hain tan sahi 
(there are two lions in the zoo. Yes there are) 

£r qfew 3 3 is u few 3" i Reply 3 f i 
main suniya hai keh tun fail ho giya hain. 
Nahin tan 

(r have heard that you have failed. No. I 
haven't) 



159 



f§ fHH fw us*? Reply u* fira few i 
tainu mill giya hai na ? haan mill giya 
(did you find it ? yes, I did) 



1. In these question tags, the first category only 
confirms a statement. Punjabi has a simple form 
which means to ask, "Is it or not ?" 3 is a 
very common expression to elicit approval or 
confirmation from another person. 

2. . In English, 'to do' takes the place of a verb 
in answers of category "B". There is nothing like 
it in Punjabi, which repeats the verb. 

So Many, So much 

1. 3$ fer IMEfofi 3TUte» U ? 

tainu kina rupaiya chahida hai 
(how much money do you want) 

& 3$ faff ?M^§ TO ? 

tainu kine rupaye chahede han 
(how many rupees do you want ?) 

2. g fs?P W fef 4 uV o* ? 

tun inna aukha kiun hunda han 
(why are you so (much) uneasy ?) 



160 



tussi ine aukhe kiun ho 

(why are you so (much) uneasy ?) 

H§ fSTP M^t fe§ f$?P H A <-ft Hof* I 

mianu inna panni dio jinah main pee sakaan 
(give me as much water as I can drink) 

& H§ fs* fw£ fe H* MTH 3 feW I 

mainu ine nambar mile keh main pass ho 
giya 

(I got so many marks that I passed) 

1 . There are certain words which have a different 
meaning in their plural form. In singular form 
they denote quantity or measure; while in plura! 
number. 

ffe, how much how many 

fifor, as much as much 

f&F, this much fe3, so many 

that much so many 

f3% that much re, a few 

333% much sot, many 

2. In adverbial -"e" form, the sense of quantit . 
or measure is retained before adjectives, as in 



161 



No. 2 above, or in »fi very good, si ear a 
little better. 

3. The plural form is masculine with -e and fern 
with -ia, as of other adjectives ending in -a. 

a. tre* jrtI i 
bhai, zara sunni 

(Brother, just (you) listen. O brother, just 
(you) listen) 

feu cfi cft& $ ? 

eh ki keeta ee 

(what have you done ?) 

#y 7P cfi cfo h i 

vekh na ki keeta su 

(Look ! what he/she had done) 

§U »P§ £ (tf) I 

oh aaye ne (je) 

They have come, (mind you them) 

b. (1) sft ? 

dariyan ki banda 

(what can be obtained by fearing ?) 



162 



fi^ii are ife>tf h§ firaraS to i 
bhaire-bhaire gane suniyan munde vigar- 
de han 

(listening bad songs, boys are spoilt) 

(2) H* »TM# ofeT Hfe»F I 

main aapne kani suniya 

(I heard (it) with my own ears) 

r feu sw »fm£ o^ht i 

main eh kam aapne hathin keeta see 

(I had done this work with my own hands) 

(3) <F3Y / feS t^t & I 

gaddi ratin / dine jandi hai 
(the train leaves night and day) 

(4) §U HU* ?F SOt 9fe»P I 

oh muhun kujh nahin bolia 

(he spoke nothing from (his) mouth) 

(5) §U W Mrfe»f | 

oh bahroon aaya 

(he came from outside) 

(6) §u R^5 / tfu to 5 | 

oh skool dhupe baitha hona hai 

(he should be sitting in school/in the sun. 

163 



suta (hoiya) aadmi moe de brabar hunda hai 
(A man in sleep is like a dead man) 

H? #3f TZJ? H3Rl I 

ronde munde change nahin lagde 
(weeping boys are not liked) 

hr* Hdto* feyhtf fscaw #y1>>r to i 

tussan merian likhiyan kitaban vekhian han 

(have you seen books written by me 1) 

dooroon aande (admi) diss painde ne (feFre% 
(to be seen) 

(Men coming from a far look like it) 

nmnda ronda janda si 

(the boy was going weeping) 

ttetft sfo Met i 
kurri kheddi kheddi deh payee 
(the girl fell down playing) 

3Zt R3l USl I 

roti sarri hoe si 

(the bread was burnt) 



164 



Vocative 



% sto / wfaw ! fare w i 

(O brother / boy, come here) 

<tf HT§ / S^t§ ! HJt 3TH I 

(O mother / girl ! listen to my word) 

§ a) S3 ! M Wtj*? sre i 
(O gentlemen ! give me help) 

#/§§ H*fe§/ ?tf ! h§ aftra e» fe§ i 

(O* boys/brothers tell me the way to the city) 

(O girls, just give attention) 

d ara£^ / ^foajH, Hat h£ i 

(O Master/God, listen my request) 

(O uncle) 

1. There are some important exceptions in 
masculine forms. In singular, the terms for 
relations, for instance, remain unchanged, as 

2. Proper nouns are optionally declined in 
vocative. sais^fHW and tfdte'ft fAur are both popular 



165 



3 The interjections ^ sfc § §§, 5, etc. are 
optionally used. 

[ w / »fu and } 

a. ii'w/wl^ b^uf » 

(1 shall do myself/by myself) 

(you go by yourself) 

§3 »p0 ?5t? fai»n i 

(he ran away himself > 

b. irP MryfeM* 

(you go to your homes) 

(he is my own companion) 

(we had our arms broken) 

Use of wzte should/wanted 
3cra g oft y»Jk» 5 ? 
(what does the servant want ?) 

(he wants a blanket / towel) 

(he wants a carpet / quilt) 



166 



H§ fast fey^! rrJkfl 5 1 

(I should write a letter) 

(I should have gone) 

With nouns as objective, "g^ute 1 " means (is 
wanted) and with declinable infinitives it means 
(should) 

When a noun as object is intended, we can 
also use s^fer i n place of rote* 

Passive Votes 

a. feu fofH 33* srafer 5 i 
(how is this work done ?) 

feS OtTO* M3»5te! 9 I 

(here Punjabi is taught) 
(I should need gold) 

(two rupees were given in advance) 

§ STO tTof3 f&3* foPX* I 

(the prisoner was tightened with chains) 

feU cTH foTH 33* ofte» U I 

(this work is done in which way ? ) 



167 



c. fei foroft Vt u u i 

(here the study of Punjabi is done) 

h§ srar feu 5th soT sra u ^ i 
(I cannot do this job) 

From the above examples we find that 

1. The passive construction is formed in three 
ways in Punjabi : 

a. Add -i+da to the root. This t?* is, of course, 
inflected in number and gender. There is auxili- 
ary verb to show tense, mood, etc. 

b. Add conjugated forms of *w to the past 
participle of the main verb. (originally) "to 
go", serves here as "to be". The participle is, of 
course, changed into gender and number. 

c. 03*, "to be", is use.4 after abstract .nouns or 
infinitives, u^, of course, is conjugated according 
to the tense, mood etc. 

2. The passive construction is to be ayoided in 
Punjabi as far as possible. It is employed, usually 
when the agent of the varb is not mentioned or 
is not known, or when obligation is intended. 



168 



Use of ?w 



a. § | 

(just caH the fruit-seller) 

uie ?th1 fstui srtra arel u i 
(his (house) wife has gone out) 

(the theft cae will come up today) 

5PHt 3Mt ?iH oil U ? 

(what is the name of the black cap man) 

b feu ^toI ^to 3oF u 1 
(this is not fit for eating) 

(students do not sleep more than seven hours) 

C. 3T3t 5 I 

(the train is about to go) 

(some guests are about (due) to come from 
Delhi) 

From the above sentences we see that 

1 . is used witji nouns showing "one concer- 
ned with", "possession" or "having". Examples : 
#cft ^b*, sa» ^ro etc. 



169 



2. It is used predicatively meaning "about to" 
Examples : wz ^sft, »re 

3. It serves as adjective. Examples : £m! ^h, ms?> 
sto etc. 

4. '^to 1 * because of its (-a) termination changes 
with gender, number and case. Examples : 

Other Examples 

Mas. Sing § 
Mas. PI. ?*h, wrfenr § 
Fem. Sing. 
Fem. PI. ^fe»f+ 

5. can be used with some adverbs : 

ore (of yesterday); »ra (of today); 
fpw£ ^gr (on the front); s»*y (adjoining); 
(of inside); (of outside). 

6. sHS 1 should not be used with adjectives. 

Revision 
( A ) 



170 



5ft 5T3T ? ^gr lffe»F - SPoT | 3 feu eft ofe* ? feH 33* 

A vegetable —seller had collected with him 
some rupees (money). He thought, "I may leave 
this shop and do some other job." He should have 
developed his own business. But he had lost his 
wisdom. The friends made him understand that 
there was no better work than this. He did not 
agree. Gradually, all his money was spent Now 
he started lamenting —"Ah, whav should I do V 

People asked -"boy, what did you do ?" This is 
not the way to do things. You should have conti- 
nued doing your job. 

( B ) 

Read and write 

feef H3 1 tP IcRF Ht I 

(a boy was going to school) 

§Ht* 98 01 I 

(he had ten paise) 



171 



(he thought of buying something with the 
ten paise) 

(when the boy was about to buy a thing, he 
caught sight of a beggar) 

§ 3 ^EH UH §T7 ffyr^ § 3 fe§ W§ Bfa HS § 

fetfHt few »fnlR* sntw 

(the boy gave his ten paise to the beggar and 

instead of buying a thing got the beggar's 
blessings) 

( C ) 

1. q 3» 3# »f»fe>»{t, 3* H § 5 §H § ore H^al I 

kuta nere aaya, tan munde ne usnu soti kadh 
man 

(the dog came near, the boy struck it with a 
stick) 

2. §h# fM3» £ »pftr»ft, "crop »{t 3 £ i 

usde pita ne aakhiya, "kaka aa ke rupayee 
lai ja 

(his father said, "Boy, come, take the money) 

3. "fen § tf<rt sts^t fe»f i 
is nu patti banwa liya 
(get it a dressing) 



172 



4. "33 £ 3& oft feapfew Fft 1 
kute nei tera ki vigarya si 

(what harm the dog had done to you) 

• 

5. "feu ura gntf sra^ y» 

eh ghardi rakhi karda hai 
fit guards the house) 

( D ) 

1. SFHof fecf M33T B^^r | 

balak ik patang charanda 
(the boy flies a kite) 

lai patang kothe char janda 
(goes on the roof with the kite) 

us kothe di vekh uchai 
(looking at the roof's height) 

4. to afr^t i 

(the mother always forbids him) 



173 



LESSON 21 
WORD - FORMATION 
Derivatives 

The best and most essential way to increase 
vocabulary is to know how a language extends 
words to signify new and allied meanings. 

Punjabi does it in three ways - by prefixes, 
by suffixes and by compounding. 

The number of prefixes and suffixes in 
Punjabi is very large. Here we have given only the 
most fertile ones. 

A - Prefixes 

w-, (not) - »fctfa (unspeakable) ; »f>ra (immoi- 
tal); (unavoidable); 'HHH (invaluable) 

»ee— , (not, in) - > >r?3 t h (no swimmer); >H^re 
(unfamiliar); (unwashed) 

§w-, (sub-, vice-) - §mws (vice-president) 
§m^h (surname) 

h— , (good) - HHre* (lucky); warn, (good 
actions); mw (fortunate) 

H — , (self) - pTh 1 ?) (self-respect); h3h1 
(home-made); fffeB^ (self-determination) 

174 



(ill) - <*w3 f. (ill-understanding); *sar 
(ill-manners); f. (disgraces); 

ow-, (little) - wire (weak); otHfen (weak- 
minded) 

— , (hard, bad) - t?3^ta (bad smell) 
feu, fen—, (less) - foaetf (fores), (fruitless 
unsuccessful) 

fog-, (less) - fog?f (fearless); foals (uninimi* 

cal) 

mu-, (other) - mh^r (other country); mus^ 
(other's woman) 

(without) - strcP (rhythmless); Shhs 
(unintelligent) 

Hut-, (great) - ho* sta (very mean) 

(great) — mh^H' (great grand father) 
H 1 — , (without) - ® T ^3H (without a successor, 
heirless) 

B. Suffixes 

1. Suffixes forming adjectives : 

f (accumulating), ftff (wasteful) 3^ 
(extravagant) 

#9* (common), m** (dry), aaftw (ochre- 
coloured) 

175 



3, wsr-f&z (swinimer); (quarrelsome) 
kM'dcj (practical), sfere (worldly) 
Ht>H5-H3t»R5 (peevish), (intractable) 
»FB-»m-fe y >iT& (merciful) » faauTO (kind) 
Hgr-g^gT (smaller) 
ei-ittf (military) 
zfor-^wzfop (of Doab) 

Hter-HK^ter (shining) 

fe3— feftf3 (written) 
Hte—wsfe (dirty) 

cP — <3T<R T (COW'S) 

^fe— ^Stgifecj (fruitful) 
^rg— ydlti'd (striped) 
>ra— ijqtHTO (wise) 

nfR»f T ? T ?) (shy) 

tMtew (capped) 

2. Suffixes forming abstract nouns : 

wf— jrarcl f. (truth) 
?t— £hb1 f. (friendship) 
3»-»ff are* f. (health) 
3t-ftof} f. (counting) 
^-I^t^t (call) 



176 



3. Suffixes forming nouns of agency 

w-Qtfop (debauch) 
(learner by rote) 

4* Suffixes forming nouns of instrumentality : 

^-f^ (duster); ^ sre (cover) 
w-tw (chopper) 

5. Suffixes forming nouns of place : 
w>-tra?> (womb) 

6. Suffixes forming relationship : 
fe-Hcrezr (a kid) 

§^ (son of); hh^ (son of uncle) 

Repetitive* & Echo-Words 

A peculiar feature of Punjabi is the redupli- 
cation of words (Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, 
verbs and adverbs) to convey extra meanings. It 
may imply : 

1. Distribution, as in 

fojfe>H* § HFT 03 # 3§ I 

(give ten paise to each of the beggars) 

§u »pm£ utj *3 are i 

(they went to their respective homes) 



177 



(in every home disputes go on) 

2. Variety, as in 

m oft oft fe»e§3t ? 

(what (different things) will you bring from 
the fair ?) 

(princes from various countries came) 

3. Quite, as in 

o§ y§ of£ org s€ i 
(collect just green leaves) 

4. Intensity, as in 

U3 re (get away, get away) 

5. Reciprocity, as in 

(love of a brother far his brother) 

6. Adverbial sense is most common : 

3x 3S *n§ i 
(go along the line) 

ste ate fe£ i 
(speak out right) 



17$ 



Compounds 

Co-ordinative Compounds 

a. Related nouns : 

h* - (mother [and] father, parents); f>m 
hrw (spices, etc.) 

b. Mostly synonyms (emphatic) 

tfg-gofo (mendicants); m-ws (complete happi- 
ness) 

c. Sometimes antonyms 
>»fcHra (all circumstances) 

d. Adjective and adjective 

trap (quite good (synonyms); y V How 
(quite loose (synonyms); ^ (high or 
low (antonyms) 

e. Numerals 

t (two or four, a few) 

f. Adverbs 

tfa* fife (before and after) 



179 



LESSON 22 



NUMERALS 

a. Cardinals : 





P. 


3. 


8. 


M. 






ft* 




UtT 






t. 


tf. 




9 




HS 










13. 


^8. 








Sat 
« 




MtJo 1 










Po. 


* 




'no'o 1 


«>. 


SelvJ 


-JO 


-<-<. 


-<3. 






fpwi 






W ^ f 


M 71 1 










30. 












3«*. 


3P. 


33. 


38. 


3M. 












3e. 




at. 


3tf. 


80. 














8P. 


83. 


88. 















180 



8£« 




tit* 




MO* 










^ i.i" w 




113 




HQ 

Mo, 


MM. 












^ c • 








€0. -> 












«£<> 










r«oi'& 










fce:» 


sf 0 




















DP. 




















DO. 






to. 
















t3. 




















tt. 




<o, 




















ft 1 
















tft. 

















181 



V>oo loooo ^3 ^ra^, «*ooooo soooooo 

Million - ?fcf 

b. Ordinals 

first Mto, second ^tP, third 3for, fourth 3tr, fiftl 

Add - to the cardinals beyond it as : 
eight, re* hundredth, saw thousandth. 

c. Fractionate 

1/4 irotw l/2»ftF 

2/3 h - feu^ 3* h 1 ^ fas 

3/4 fn?> - iwt 4$ ire 
1 U3» fesi and so on 

literally means 'Plus half. 

If TO [fe*] 1| i}§ H 

2i w £ 2| u§ fi§3 

3t re»f§7s 3! 

and so on and so on 

1$ us literally means 'one 

2\ ^ quarter less than 

If the words »ftr, half, u^, three-quarter, 
and one and a quarter, are used singly, they 
are declined in number and gender as they end 

182 



in -a. Other fractions do not end in -a and are> 
therefore, uninflected. 

d. Multipiicatives are of two kinds : 

fcorugr, f3W, etc. With -aa* suffix means 
4 -fold\ one-fold, twofold, three-fold, four-fold 
and so on. 3^^, etc. with - 5& suffix means 
'times' from ate. Thus two times, three times, 
four time, and so on. They are declined in 
number and gender. 

e. A peculiar way of giving indefinite number is 
to count in succession like this : 

1. Consecutive 

there were two (or) three men there. 

Srg-lfo »teHt>M» afe cfte! Fft ! 

I had a talk with four (or) five men. 

2. Alternate numbers 

there were two (or) four/eight (of) ten/ten 
(of) twelve men. 

3. Fives 

there were five*ten / ten-fifteen men there. 



183 



LESSON 23 



ABOUT TIME 

1. 5^3 ^53F ? 

(at what time will you go ?) 

2. mt ep^T w #3 ti^ai i 

(we shall reach at half past eleven) 

(I shall start at quarter past seven) 

4. us oft ^3 3 ? 
(what is the time now) 

5. fen ?sr3 fesr ^faw u i 

(it is one o'clock at this time) 

(as yet it is too early - It is after all 2-30) 

7. §U W3\ 0 Sltf I S ?ScS 03 I 

(oh, it is very late, it is about quarter to 
nine) 

8. si u§ »fc y^sr (?tf ) are u?j ? 
(is it exact eight o'clock) 

9. 7^ »ra yfe ^3 TO | 

(no, as yet it is only o'clock) 

10. U* tft, TO H3 €rl cfU U7J I 

(yes please, it is getting half past seven) 



184 



I. Half hours are expressed as under i 

1- 30 ts, meaning 'one and a half' — half past 

one. 

2- 30 ^ r ?t, meaning 'two a ad a half — half past' 
two. With 3 and after, is used for every halt' 

- m^TO, H'x?" Oh etc. 

II. 'Quarter past' is rendered into h^, as in 

h (2.15), h^t f3?> (3.15) etc. for quarter past two, 
quarter past three, etc. 

III. 'Quarter to' is expressed by tf<F (singular) and 
us (plural), as U3 T fesr (pauna ikj quarter to one. 

IV. "ui" meaning (full) expresses full hours, as 
"ui grgr" (pure baraneh) exact tweleve. 

Other Sentences 

(well please, what is the time by your watch ?) 

Pst uist en fn? iff ^ i for 3 s £ ^kf ftfe ^ i 
my watch is fast by ten minutes. By this it is 9-20 

(at this time it is five minutes to half past nine) 
.ie. 9-25 



185 



(at what time does the train arrive ?j 
(at 8-40, please) 

(of day or night) 

fas § MS I 
8-40 a.m. 

M3 ft* Hfew 3 fe »*S ^tT^' # i UH3* fife § 5 I 

(but I have heard that it arrives at fifteen minutes 
to eight) 

When minutes are to be expressed, then we 
use conjunctive participle form of "^tre*/ i.e. 

for 'past', as <s £a t ^fe fife, (twenty 
minutes past nine) lit. (after striking nine, twenty 
minutes). Note the order in Punjabi construction 
due to logical sequence of time. 

Months 

April - May, May - June, u«ar, June 

- July, w^s y July - August, to*, August - Sept- 
ember, »m, September — October, si, October 

— November, HW3, November — December uu, 
Decembe - January, Hny, January — February, 

February — March, #3, #33, March - April 



186 



LESSON 24 



USAGE AND IDIOMS 

1. There are certain expressions, which will 
appear peculiar to foreign learners. The use of 
compound verbs, especially when opposite idea 
is expressed in one action, is difficult, indeed. 
For example § s is, literally means 'get up' and 
',sit down 1 ', but actually it means, "get up". 

2. Some combinations of nouns and adjectives, 
including numerals, without the use of conjunction, 
are also important items of Punjabi usage 

ExamplM 

On #tt (table etc;; fast *fis\ f. (letter); f. 
(bickering); 9? (immediately); fare to f. (hotch 
potch); fM 3»m (silent); 3§ it (nearby); wra f. 
(news) etc. 

In each of the above combinations, one word 
is meaningful while the other is just an echo or 
some meaningless item which, however, adds to 
the total meaning. 

187 



3. Sometimes two meaningful words are com- 
bined to show intensity 

Examples 

qTM^t H3 T (clothes, etc); sj 2 t$ f. (beating 
and thrashing); # w (n$me & address); is a f. 
(omission): h*s eHlw (mere food) 

4. Some expressions contain similes and make 
intensive adjectives 

Examples 

>k?p z\ (like a blind pony); »ol»f?5 ufc7 (as 
obstinate as a donkey); hs t H3l (like a pure pearl); 
f^r ^ ^ (extremely white-like milk); 3V 3»: (very 
hot (like oil); 33 33 (very timid-like a sheep); 
S3» xw (very cold- like ice). 

5. Some customary similes indicate a fine quality 
of a thing 

Examples 

s£\ tt^ 7 ^ (young like a beam, i.e. tall) 
§hh ^a^f (hair like silk, i.e. very soft); w£w 
^ar £f (teeth like pearls, i.e. clean); ?33F 
fes (rrart like a river, i.e. liberal) 

183 



6. Certain nouns take specific verbs 

w& (to go round, lit to eat circles); h»h 
(to b^atea, lit. to eat beating)? ire* 
(to be abused, lit. to eat aDitees); ssra (to 
scumble, lit. to eat a stumble); ma (to 
spread (lit fly) news); 3N ' (to start (lit. 

fly) a ni hour). 

7. There is another category of phrases-nominal 
and adjectival -in possessive case. Note their 
special meanings : 

a. & 3*3* (dear, pupil (lit star) of the eyes) 
ere w (wooden owl, Le. foolish); «ra & ? 33ft 
(hen of the house, i.e. controllable); we\ 
(water of the plate, i.e. shallow). 

Idioms 

f s g^^r (to befool); fe^F (in high 
spirits); »rar ^asl (to rain fire); m hw (to make 
a sign by swerving the eye) ; was zxz] (to crush 
pride); fea M3 (to be united); gsr (to 
be horrified); ftra §v0<? (to bsfall); as u sto 
(to lose); us mss* (to regret); <*oi3&\ (to 
become a puppet); as a£ (to beware); raswt 



189 



(to rob); § to (to speak harshly); Scpg 7? 
ro (not having a feel) ; #ar (to pass time) 
3??5f>H» (to beat); sra (to disappear); 

g*3t § h 3i sss* (to tease) ; f & (to stay long) ; 
^nt ^roaft (to get disappointed) ; 33l ^ ^ (to 
have no trouble) ; ores 4 (to laugn loudly) ; 
$e hfi cttt (to defeat) ; wtj (to give/seek help) ; 
iaW treW (to be made prisoner); u^ 7 
(to be successful); ftfzi u (to feel ashamed) ; 
huhh (to be outspoken) ; HSHw(toeat); 
hu ciw orgsr (to do evil) ; 3313* mi§^t (to start 
dispute) ; feci u (to work very hard) 



190 



LESSON 25 



VOCABULARY-I 



Body 



3^ body 


are 1 throat 


nate body 


ite f., HtT f. neck 


body 


£e teeth 


fire head 


rite f . tongue 


h u mouth, face 


trel f. f. chin 


hair of the head 


h^t shoulder 


H'H* hair of the body 


o% hand 


z& f. eyebrows 


f^rel f. finger 


53?? eyebrows 


>fore T thumb 
• 


h& forehead 


f. palm 


»fa f. eye 


s^l f. chest 


fust f. breast 


rite» chest 


0? stomach, belly 


fMMH^HT f. e y e lashes 


is 1 eyeball 


3w f. thigh 


are ear 


ear f. leg 


Sor nose 


cwa f. waist 


s^h* f. nostrils 


?5of waist 


arc? f. cheek 


w f. elbow 


sfe f. armpit 


3g armpit 


ho blood 





191 



LESSOU 26 



fas* f. fort 

hospital 
ongitfw mill 
Here school 
h§hs station 
nibs palace 
ys bridge 
ot^h college 

post office 
3^wg telegraph office 
to prison 
oiyrodl f. court 
are*H godown 
hVh temple 
room 



FAMILY 



feua^ courtyard 
f. staircase 

sae floor 

ue^s ventilator 

fftzw church 

hh13 f. mosque 
f . inn 

Hops f. shop 
hotel 

ma house 

sure* bungalow 

93t bungalow 

Wtt f. barracks 
f. sitting room 

annt f kitchen 



Mfe^rg family 
sire family 
w* f. mother 
w father 



as husband's elder brother 
wife 

Hrot f wife's sister 
ht>A f m. uncle's wife 



paternal uncle fH 1 f father's sister 



192 



LESSON 27 



DRESS 



w$ f. saree 
^hb* shirt 

f. dhoti 
HW^'d f. salwar 
MtTwr pyjama 
sstona f. underwear 
ofer underwear 
ftftre f. knickers 

f. socks 



cTtfaf. thirt 
f. cap 
f. turban 
mm handkerchief 

f . shoe 
^b) f carpet 
B?re) i. quilt 
dtt««1 f . cushion 
drawers 



Household Qoodt 



HtP cot 
*3Ht f. chaii 

*rew»tf f. shelf 
hhuh table cloth 
n*d**'<sl mosquito net 

clothes 

utensils 
^b! saucer 
asft small utensil 
fci&H glass 



salt 

fRBBf. pepper, 

chilli 
os^i f. turmeric 
vita 7 cummin seed 
»rs T flour 
tHH pulses 
fruit 
water 
3W£ whey 
Hter mirror, glass 



193 



LESSON 28 
NATURE 



m^I water 


sraHt 1. summer 


i, air, wmd 


shh f. spring 


^31 1. nre 


f. cold 


-smoke 


g^e> f. ice, snow 


*H , o('H sKy 


s m sunshine 


THHi l- ettnn 


in f. shade 


r^H«1 F. lightening 


€^5 T hailstone 


€8 sea 


h f. hot wind 


ekmd 


re f. dust 


q q f. fog 


g^B f rain 


hhh weather 


^ug 1 smog 


frott 


o<sd) f. storm 


w frost 


ftsra mud 


H3^t f . COld 


bird 


In the City 


eftra city 


sto garden 


f. road 


hzu f. motor 


HH^T W ay 


an f. bus 


f. street 


zsjht f. taxi 


Hd?F locality 


fesfe ticket 



194 



3cf crossing of roads 
park 
fare 
^oto f. shop 
y&H f police 
3^ f. telegram 

letter 
<^3hh parcel 
fa3iz f. book 



aroar customer 
gfifwnrgetdsmith 

^cfis lawyer 
3sra servant 
vf&\ gardener 
srohHT postman 
srel barber 
s^ttf tailor 
yojiAtd'd shopkeeper 



19* 



LESSON 29 
EN3LI8H WORDS IN PUNJABI 



>H3H3f officer 


f. hockey 


wife f. appeal 


3*33 horn 


»raes! orderly 


urohall 


»f T etH^H f. ice-cream 


d»rafMS hair-pin 


omelette 


hostel 


agent 


uen hotel 


f&re engine 


ciudoi clerk 


scooter 


srfeM clip 


HSH School 


oTM CUp 


n%*3 stand 


sre cuff 


h^hh f. science 


ofifoj compounder 


rraftMa slippers 


cfTHt? college 


hh? f. slate 


nte f. seat 


nafWH f. service 


suit 


cpm! f. copy 


tnt#?> telephone 


crfel f. committee 


^hh double 


tor cake 


srTEtea driver 


SMS* camera 


fa did! f. degree 


c7s coat 


theatre 


gate 


^ note 



196 



are goal (sports) 


sfca notice 


faHat f. chimney 


m£h petrol 


%7i f. chain 


f. plate 


tff? judge 


mt3ot park 


t f- tray 


m§7 f . parade 


fasHS f. pension 


fas f. pin 


m%r f. polish 


fere f. list 


irfisr pudding 


ttlsfd leader 


fes button 


f z vote 



197 



Vocjibulary-JI 



wre (asar) effect esp (suka) dry 

»fofH (akal) intetfect RHa (suraj) sun 

(akaaj) fa<rmne r§?h (sarovar) lake 
wsot (achnnak) suddenly (hal) plough 

»fg3 (achhut) untouchable x& (hawa) wind 

»rau (athru) tears usm (hukam) order 

»reM3 (anparh) illiterate oe (hosh) sense 



Wcf (anahan) blind 
>H3t (anda) egg 
>>ren (andar) inside 
^ (aas) hope 
»re3 (aadat) habit 
w&H (aaram) rest 
>>f T ? T H (avaj) sound 
»f T 53 (aafat) disaster 
feR^t (istri) woman 
fE3?P (itna) this much 
fe^H (inam) prize 
sfrra (iman) prize 
§aw (ujala) light 



srcn^t (kahani) story 
owt ( kacha) unripe 
sren (kadam) step 
sraH (karaz) loan 
f^R^ (kisan) farmer 
gf tft (kunji) key 

(kaum) nation 
re (khat) postcard 
*3ht (khatra) danger 
y T R (khaas) special 
m$3\ (galti) mistake 
(gupat) hidden 
w& (ghata) loss 



freiR (uda*) sad 
§p fiuih) wool 
§H3 (um**i> age 
MB^<auiad) ehild 
nyn (sakhat) hard 
(sacb) t|*th 

(satia) always 
Fra^t (sardl) cdld 
Rfc? (sanduk) box 

(taklif) difficulty 
H^hfT (tafika) method 
it? (tei) quick 
^5TFT (dafja ) class 

(dana) grain 
-etew fdiwanA) mad 
qM (dhup) sunshine 
<52M? (natkhat) naughty 
fan** (tiisban ) 3ign 
sdHV> (nuksan) loss 
Ati^'A (naujwan) young 
Mot^h! (pardesi) foreigner 
w (paltu) domestic 



gap (cjiftflge) good 

(chuj*) sclent 
t^H (janarn) birth 
faRH (jteam) body 
fts (jejbj) pocket 
?MV(tt^) cap 
sag (tnokat) kick 

(dhang) method 

(dbaung) fraud 
3>s (bhaf) steam 
?y(bhukh) hunger 
is (bhul) mistake 
is* (bhola) simple 
huIs (piabin) fine 
h*« {maai) goods 
fifcft (mitti) *aifli 
Too? (mulak) country 

(mufat) free 
hh¥ (murakh) fool 

(mewa) dry fruit 
h%\ (mochi) cobblei 



199 



tore* (pinjra) cage 
yrasr (puatak) book 
ear (phal) fruit 
fesr fphika) tasteless 
^ (phora) boil 

(bachna) safety 
(bachan) promise, word 
97 (bacha) cfaild 

(badal) cloud 
sro (bag) garden 
fyHdd' (bistra) bedding 
fest (billi) cat 
'efrre (beemar) patient 
l^rsi (bukhar) fevei 
s (bu) smell 

(bniti) request 
tH3H (besharam) shameless 

(bolna) take 
am (shah) richman 
H? (sher) lion 
loPH(zukam) bad cold 



( maut) death 

we fyad) memory 

hh (rw) juice 

o^rs (rawaj) custom 

&w (raja) king 

(rani) queen 

cF3 (rat) night 

feH*3 (rishwat) bribe 

3m (roop) beauty 

fzt froti) bread 

ws\ (lathi) stick 
HTO3(lalach) g ree d 

tew (likhna) write 
£sr (lok) people 
^sfte (vakil) pleader 
esr Cshak) doubt 
HofH (shakal) face 
srara (sharab) wine 
pftFT (sheesha) mirror 
McTotet (khargosh) hare 
(farsh) floor 



200